Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, wood time fuze, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Artillery 1250 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.

Weapons used:
Smoothbore 12 pounder, 4.62in. Caliber of the gun is 4.62in., round projectile diameter should measure 4.52 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Coehorn mortar 12 pounder, 4.62in. Caliber of the gun is 4.62in., round projectile diameter should measure 4.52 in. approximately, variations will be noted.

Artillery 1251 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A0966...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Petersburg Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A1485...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
A1485.jpg (31291 bytes) Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A1784...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2221...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2368...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2522...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 6lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: not known, shell had been used as a gate weight.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2527...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2528...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2618...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7.7lbs., empty. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2619...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7.9lbs., empty approximately. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2671...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7 lbs. (empty), shell has metal loss. Cut shell showing cross section of round cavity and fuze hole. Metal soft, but stable, with pitting, wood fuze is partial. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell, everything open. Recovered: Spanish Fort, Alabama, this Confederate ball was recovered amongst polygonal shells, and it turned out to not be polygonal!
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2853...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 6lbs., empty. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2901...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8.8lbs. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign. Metal is solid, wood fuze intact, heavy ball could be case shot. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the wood time fuze and through the bottom. Cut shell shows cross section of wood fuze and cavity. Note that the hard crusty material inside is black powder, it is hard and crusty because it has deteriorated, and is no longer a flammable product or a safety hazard. However it can be easily removed if desired.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2920...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 6.1lbs., empty. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2922...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 6.1lbs., empty. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2923...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs., empty. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30. Cut shell.


Artillery 1252 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with 1.125in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in., with wood sabot.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. The balls used in the Napoleons would have started out with a wood sabot and straps, the wood sabot was designed to position the ball in the bore with a flat surface to propel it, then the straps would break and the ball would fly freely. Few are recovered with the sabot, all fired examples would have been seperated from the sabot on firing, and the wood generally will not survive the environment for 100+ years. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A1778...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with 1.125in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in., with wood sabot.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. The balls used in the Napoleons would have started out with a wood sabot and straps, the wood sabot was designed to position the ball in the bore with a flat surface to propel it, then the straps would break and the ball would fly freely. Few are recovered with the sabot, all fired examples would have been seperated from the sabot on firing, and the wood generally will not survive the environment for 100+ years. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately. Original wood sabot partially intact and original wood fuze is removable. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Milledgeville, Georgia river cache.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2765...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with 1.125in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in., with wood sabot.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. The balls used in the Napoleons would have started out with a wood sabot and straps, the wood sabot was designed to position the ball in the bore with a flat surface to propel it, then the straps would break and the ball would fly freely. Few are recovered with the sabot, all fired examples would have been seperated from the sabot on firing, and the wood generally will not survive the environment for 100+ years. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8 lbs. Metal solid with some pitting, wood fuze missing, part of original wood sabot remains, remnants of straps visible. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Milledgeville, Georgia river cache.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.


Artillery 1253 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with 1.125in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8lbs., empty approximately.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2184...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with 1.125in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., 7.5lbs. (empty). Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Kennesaw, Georgia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2473...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), wood time fuze with 1.125in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. There are also thickness differences in the casting, and this many have been designed for "case shot" versus "common", however these shells are seldom found packed with case shot, so the presumption is that the use was "common", standard bursting charge without case shot balls, regardless of thickness of the casting. Perhaps southerners felt they could not spare the balls. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7.5lbs. (empty). Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Petersburg, Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.


Artillery 1254 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "case shot", iron balls packed in powder without matrix, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". It is believed that this pattern is Confederate wartime manufacture. It was packed with iron balls loosely packed in powder, matrix was not used. In addition the wide area around the fuze hole is recessed inside, this is an unusual feater, most designs are flat. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9 to 11lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2415...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "case shot", iron balls packed in powder without matrix, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". It is believed that this pattern is Confederate wartime manufacture. It was packed with iron balls loosely packed in powder, matrix was not used. In addition the wide area around the fuze hole is recessed inside, this is an unusual feater, most designs are flat. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 11lbs. Cut shell shows cross section of iron balls packed in powder only. Wood fuze is partial. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole in bottom before it was cut, cut shell everything is open. Recovered: Mississippi campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.


Artillery 1255 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7lbs (empty).
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A1484...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7.lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity, note that this one was cast significantly off center. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A1673...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7.lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Petersburg, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A1779...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7.lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Petersburg, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2222...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., 7.5lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Mission Ridge, Chattanooga, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2231...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Tennessee campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2427...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity pentagonal pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the five sided pentagonal shape, Dickey & George Fig C-3 pg. 526. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Bentonville, North Carolina.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.


Artillery 1256 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs (empty).
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A0006...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 8.6lbs. This example was cast way off center which would have completely defeated the point of the polygonal casting in this case. Note that this "dud" simply cracked and broke on impact but did not explode. Moisture and rust eventually split it apart exposing the interior. Projectile is disarmed: open carcass exposes empty interior. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A1672...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
A1672.jpg (28896 bytes) A1672B.jpg (24994 bytes) Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs, (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2225...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2292...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs (empty).Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: surplus stocks.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2495...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in. Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Petersburg, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2670...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity diamond pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided diamond shape, Dickey & George Fig C-4 pg. 527. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs, (empty). Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 9lbs, (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Metal is soft, but stable, wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Spanish Fort, Alabama.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.


Artillery 1257 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity trapezoid pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided trapezoid shape, Dickey & George Type IV pg. 529. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7lbs (empty).
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2426...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity trapezoid pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided trapezoid shape, Dickey & George Type IV pg. 529. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., weight 7lbs, (empty). Cut shell shows cross section of polygonal cavity. Metal is solid, wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything is exposed. Recovered: Jonesboro, Georgia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.

A2894...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, "common" (standard), polygonal cavity trapezoid pattern, wood time fuze with .875in. opening, 12 pounder, 4.62in.
Projectile was intended for the smoothbore 12 pounder. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Those with small openings, .875in., were generally manufactured before the war for the 12 pounder Coehorn Mortar. However by the beginning of the Civil War this small Coehorn mortar had largely been replaced by the newer 24 pounder Coehorn. All of the arsenals would have been abundantly stocked with them, and southerners made good use of them in the 12 pounder howitzers, referred to as the "Napoleon". Those with larger opening, 1.125in. may have been intended for the longer range Napoleons, however it appears that the size distinction of the opening was of little concern and both sizes were manufactured and extensively used through out the war, principal use was southern. This pattern is Confederate manufacture during the war. Instead of the usual round bursting chamber the interior was segmented into polygonal forms, points of weakness would be created to facilitate more uniform fragmentation. This pattern was cast using the four sided trapezoid shape, Dickey & George Type IV pg. 529. Often the core would drift off center during casting, the resultant off-center cavity would tend to negate the benefits of the segmented interior. Projectile measures: diameter 4.52in., 7.7lbs, (empty). Cut shell exposing cross section and trapezoidal pattern. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg, Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 30.


Artillery 1258 Ball wood fuzed 12pdr. 4.62in.
Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, wood time fuze , Revolutionary War or War of 1812 period, smoothbore 12 pounder.
Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, small opening (7/8in.), Ball was manufactured before 1820 and could be Revolutionary War period. Manufacturing is crude by Civil War standards, there is usually a casting sprue and the fuze hole is slightly irregular. Ball does have a hollow cavity for explosive purpose, and is round, it is indeed round and sturdy enough for artillery use. Projectile measures: diameter 4.45in., weight 8lbs, (empty).
Revolutionary War or War of 1812 period 12 pounder.

A2858...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, bursting shell, wood time fuze , Revolutionary War or War of 1812 period, smoothbore 12 pounder.
Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, small opening (7/8in.), Ball was manufactured before 1820 and could be Revolutionary War period. Manufacturing is crude by Civil War standards, there is usually a casting sprue and the fuze hole is slightly irregular. Ball does have a hollow cavity for explosive purpose, and is round, it is indeed round and sturdy enough for artillery use. Projectile measures: diameter 4.45in., weight 8lbs, (empty).
Recovered: Fort Niagara, provenance is based on painted inscription on the shell.


Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, 12 pounder, fragments.

A0200.01...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, polygonal pattern, fragments.
Polygonal fragments 12 pounder, all three patterns have been found, pentagonal trapexoidal, and diagonal. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia 1864 campaign, Third Battle of Winchester and Battle of Cedar Creek, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0200.06...Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, 12 pounder, fragments.
  These 12 pounder fragments are from wood fuzed balls. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia 1863 or 1864 campaign, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A1792.Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, polygonal pattern, fragments.
Large fragment contains four segments of the diagonal pattern polygonal. Recovered: Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2210.Smoothbore artillery projectile, spherical ball, polygonal pattern, fragments.
Five fragments, all pentagonal cavity, including an example of the top section with a fuze hole. Recovered: Petersburg Virginia campaign.


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