Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, 2.9 in. to 3in.
Artillery 3410 Britten 2.9in to 3in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.

Weapons used:
Confederate 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in. Caliber of the gun is 2.9in., 3 grooves, (apparently copied from Federal 10 pounder), projectile diameter should measure 2.85 in. approximately, variations will be found.
Confederate rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 7 grooves, (apparently copied from Federal 3 in. Ordnance rifle), projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be found.
Confederate rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 12 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be found.


Artillery 3411 Britten bolt long nose 2.9in to 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, solid bolt, pattern with long rounded nose, lead cup sabot, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. Bolt was turned on a lathe, when sabot is missing there is lathe dimple and lathe marks on bottom, some will have ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.45in., length 5.25in. (excluding sabot), weight 5.7lbs., without sabot.
Artillery 3411 Britten bolt long nose 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 108.

A0029...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, solid bolt, pattern with long rounded nose, lead cup sabot, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. Bolt was turned on a lathe, when sabot is missing there is lathe dimple and lathe marks on bottom, some will have ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.45in., length 5.25in. (excluding sabot), weight 5.7lbs., without sabot.
Artillery 3411 Britten bolt long nose 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 108.

Projectile measures: diameter 2.45in., length 5.25in. (excluding sabot), weight 5.7lbs., without sabot. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Metal is smooth, this is early pickup. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron casting never had a cavity or bursting charge. This came out of Jac Weller old collection which was auctioned in San Francisco in 1995. Recovered: First Manassas, Virginia, not confirmed.


Artillery 3412 Britten bolt short nose 2.9in to 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, solid bolt, pattern with short tapered nose, lead cup sabot, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. Bolt was turned on a lathe, when sabot is missing there is lathe dimple and lathe marks on bottom, some will have ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.0lb.
Artillery 3412 Britten bolt short nose 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 109.

A1211...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, solid bolt, pattern with short tapered nose, lead cup sabot, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. Bolt was turned on a lathe, when sabot is missing there is lathe dimple and lathe marks on bottom, some will have ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.0lb.
Artillery 3412 Britten bolt short nose 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 109.

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.0lb. Fired sabot shows 7 lands & grooves, which means it was fired from 3 in. ordnance gun, sabot intact with distortion from firing, shell cart-wheeled and landed bottom first. All known examples have come from Helena Arkansas, apparently fired from a Federal battery, it is possible that in that theater, remote at the time, that the Federals captured Confederate supplies and used them! Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron casting never had a cavity or bursting charge. Recovered: Helena Arkansas.


Artillery 3413 Britten bolt shell threaded fuze 2.9in to 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with short tapered nose segmented interior, lead cup sabot, threaded for unknown fuze, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. It appears that the segmented interior, which is hardened steel, may have initially been manufactured as rolled sheet, then bent into a cylinder forming the core, then an iron skin cast onto the cylinder, the casting is very thin on the bottom covered only by the lead cup sabot. Fuze hole is left hand threaded British fuze, however all that have been recovered either were missing the fuze or the fuze was plugged with a wood shipping plug. There is some evidence that these shells were captured by the Federals from the Confederates and were simply fired as bolts due to the problem of them being separated from their fuzes. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 6.2lb.
Artillery 3413 Britten bolt shell threaded fuze 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 110.

A0030...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with short tapered nose segmented interior, lead cup sabot, threaded for unknown fuze, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. It appears that the segmented interior, which is hardened steel, may have initially been manufactured as rolled sheet, then bent into a cylinder forming the core, then an iron skin cast onto the cylinder, the casting is very thin on the bottom covered only by the lead cup sabot. Fuze hole is left hand threaded British fuze, however all that have been recovered either were missing the fuze or the fuze was plugged with a wood shipping plug. There is some evidence that these shells were captured by the Federals from the Confederates and were simply fired as bolts due to the problem of them being separated from their fuzes. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight not determined. Fired sabot shows 7 lands and grooves, fired from 2.9in. rifle, sabot intact. Threaded fuze was never installed. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Helena, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 110.

A1027...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with short tapered nose segmented interior, lead cup sabot, threaded for unknown fuze, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. It appears that the segmented interior, which is hardened steel, may have initially been manufactured as rolled sheet, then bent into a cylinder forming the core, then an iron skin cast onto the cylinder, the casting is very thin on the bottom covered only by the lead cup sabot. Fuze hole is left hand threaded British fuze, however all that have been recovered either were missing the fuze or the fuze was plugged with a wood shipping plug. There is some evidence that these shells were captured by the Federals from the Confederates and were simply fired as bolts due to the problem of them being separated from their fuzes. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 6.2lb. Fired sabot shows 7 lands and grooves, fired from 2.9in. rifle, sabot intact. Threaded fuze was never installed, remnants of wood may be a shipping plug, shell may have been used as a bolt. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Helena, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 110.

A1523...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with short tapered nose segmented interior, lead cup sabot, threaded for unknown fuze, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. It appears that the segmented interior, which is hardened steel, may have initially been manufactured as rolled sheet, then bent into a cylinder forming the core, then an iron skin cast onto the cylinder, the casting is very thin on the bottom covered only by the lead cup sabot. Fuze hole is left hand threaded British fuze, however all that have been recovered either were missing the fuze or the fuze was plugged with a wood shipping plug. There is some evidence that these shells were captured by the Federals from the Confederates and were simply fired as bolts due to the problem of them being separated from their fuzes. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 6.2lb. Fired sabot shows 7 lands and grooves, fired from 2.9in. rifle, sabot intact. Threaded fuze was never installed, remnants of wood may be a shipping plug, shell may have been used as a bolt. Metal solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Helena, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 110.

A1856...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with short tapered nose segmented interior, lead cup sabot, threaded for unknown fuze, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. It appears that the segmented interior, which is hardened steel, may have initially been manufactured as rolled sheet, then bent into a cylinder forming the core, then an iron skin cast onto the cylinder, the casting is very thin on the bottom covered only by the lead cup sabot. Fuze hole is left hand threaded British fuze, however all that have been recovered either were missing the fuze or the fuze was plugged with a wood shipping plug. There is some evidence that these shells were captured by the Federals from the Confederates and were simply fired as bolts due to the problem of them being separated from their fuzes. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 6.2lb.
Artillery 3413 Britten bolt shell threaded fuze 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 110.
G085.jpg (16684 bytes) G085B.jpg (17486 bytes) G085C.jpg (22714 bytes) G085D.jpg (17459 bytes)
Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 5.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 6.2lb. Fired sabot shows 7 lands and grooves, fired from 2.9in. rifle, sabot intact. Threaded fuze was never installed, remnants of wood may be a shipping plug, shell may have been used as a bolt. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Helena, Arkansas.

A2382...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with short tapered nose segmented interior, lead cup sabot, threaded for unknown fuze, 10 pounder rifle, 2.9 in. or Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose which probably was left from it being clamped to the lathe, American producers tended to use knobs. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. It appears that the segmented interior, which is hardened steel, may have initially been manufactured as rolled sheet, then bent into a cylinder forming the core, then an iron skin cast onto the cylinder, the casting is very thin on the bottom covered only by the lead cup sabot. Fuze hole is left hand threaded British fuze, however all that have been recovered either were missing the fuze or the fuze was plugged with a wood shipping plug. There is some evidence that these shells were captured by the Federals from the Confederates and were simply fired as bolts due to the problem of them being separated from their fuzes. Projectile measures smaller than 2.9 in. suggesting that it may have originally been intended for the 10 pounder, however, the short length with a soft lead sabot would not have been suited at all for a 3 groove 10 pounder 2.9in. rifle, those missing the sabot may have been fired from this rifle, the torque from firing 3 groove would tend to rip the sabot away. All examples recovered with fired sabot remaining show 7 grooves suggesting most were actually fired from a 3 inch rifle, it would have fit loose in a 3 inch bore and this would account for the weak rifling. It is speculated that this pattern was originally manufactured for the smaller 2.9in. rifle, but most were used in the 3in. rifle as a practical solution. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 5.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 6lbs. (empty). Fired sabot shows 7 lands and grooves, fired from 2.9in. rifle, sabot intact. Threaded fuze was never installed. Metal solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Helena, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 110.


Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, 2.9 in. or 3in., fragments.

A0913...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, 2.9 in. or 3in., base and sabot.
This is fired sabot that separated from its shell. Base shows 7 lands and grooves as well as segmented interior! Recovered: Helena Arkansas.


Artillery 3414 Britten bolt Georgiana 2.9in to 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern recovered Georgiana blockade runner, lead cup sabot, rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose, purpose is not determined. This tall pattern of Britten was being shipped to the Confederacy on the blockade runner "Georgiana" which was sunk off the coast of South Carolina, all were lost at the time. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6in. weight 8lbs. (estimated, metal is typically very weak).
Artillery 3414 Britten bolt Georgiana 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 112.

A1857...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern recovered Georgiana blockade runner, lead cup sabot, rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose, purpose is not determined. This tall pattern of Britten was being shipped to the Confederacy on the blockade runner "Georgiana" which was sunk off the coast of South Carolina, all were lost at the time. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6in. weight 8lbs. (estimated, metal is typically very weak).
Artillery 3414 Britten bolt Georgiana 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 112.
A1857.jpg (17147 bytes) A1857B.jpg (18312 bytes) A1857C.jpg (19114 bytes)
Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6in. weight 8lbs. (estimated, metal is typically very weak). Sabot is unfired and intact. Metal is weak with significant pitting, but stable, shell is whole, none of these shells recovered were in good condition, this one is better than most. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron casting, never had a cavity or bursting charge. Recovered: Georgiana ship wreck, only site recovered.


Artillery 3415 Britten shell Georgiana 2.9in to 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with segmented interior recovered Georgiana blockade runner, lead cup sabot, rifle, 3 in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose, purpose is not determined. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. Shell has been cut exposing the segmented interior. Fuze hole was prepared for a lead fuze type unknown, only fragments of these fuzes have been recovered. This tall pattern of Britten was being shipped to the Confederacy on the blockade runner "Georgiana" which was sunk off the coast of South Carolina, all were lost at the time. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6in. weight 8lbs. (estimated, metal is typically very weak)
Artillery 3415 Britten shell Georgiana 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 113.

A0031...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with segmented interior recovered Georgiana blockade runner, lead cup sabot, rifle, 3 in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose, purpose is not determined. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. Shell has been cut exposing the segmented interior. Fuze hole was prepared for a lead fuze type unknown, only fragments of these fuzes have been recovered. This tall pattern of Britten was being shipped to the Confederacy on the blockade runner "Georgiana" which was sunk off the coast of South Carolina, all were lost at the time. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6in. weight 8lbs. (estimated, metal is typically very weak)
Artillery 3415 Britten shell Georgiana 2.9in to 3in., Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 113.

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.0in. (approx.), cut shell. Cut shell exposes star interior. Metal is weak on exterior, sabot and interior star is strong. Shell is disarmed, cut shell is empty. Recovered: blockade runner Georgiana. Cut half shell.

A1858...Rifled artillery projectile, Britten design, English manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with segmented interior recovered Georgiana blockade runner, lead cup sabot, rifle, 3 in.
Projectile was manufactured by the English and exported to the American conflict, either side could purchase them, but primary use was southern. The design follows Britten's English patent, employing a lead cup sabot with a counter bulge or large concave teat that extends beyond the bottom. There is a ring around the nose, purpose is not determined. Interior is segmented to provide points of weakness for maximum fragmentation. Shell has been cut exposing the segmented interior. Fuze hole was prepared for a lead fuze type unknown, only fragments of these fuzes have been recovered. This tall pattern of Britten was being shipped to the Confederacy on the blockade runner "Georgiana" which was sunk off the coast of South Carolina, all were lost at the time. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6in. weight 8lbs. (estimated, metal is typically very weak). Cut shell exposes star interior. Metal is weak on exterior, sabot and interior star is strong. Shell is disarmed, cut shell is empty. Recovered: blockade runner Georgiana .
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 113. cut half shell.


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