Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery

by Harry Ridgeway


Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in.
Artillery 4320 Hotchkiss 3in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.

Weapons used:
Ordnance rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 7 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be found.
Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in. Caliber of the gun is 2.9in., 3 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.85 in. approximately, variations will be found. Note, use of the Parrott rifle would have been a mismatch for the Hotchkiss shell, however the occasional field recovered pieces with three lands and grooves confirms that this gun was used.


Artillery 4321 bolt Hotchkiss 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, pattern with without flame grooves, pointed nose, lead band sabot, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Projectile is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment, use of this light bolt had limited applicability and is relatively scarce in the smaller calibers. Nose of this pattern is pointed. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7.25in. unfired sabot, weight 10lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 163.

A0046...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.6lbs Lead band sabot is not fired. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: surplus stocks.

A1827...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.6lbs Lead band sabot is not fired. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: surplus stocks.


Artillery 4322 Hotchkiss shell without flame grooves case shot lead time fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern without flame grooves, rounded nose, "case shot" iron balls packed in sawdust, iron separator bolt, lead band sabot, Hotchkiss lead time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were "common" or standard rounds, explosive charge only, or "case shot", filled with balls. This is "case shot", with a time fuze it was designed to be used against troops by spreading large volume of fragments and balls over the open field of fighting. Iron balls were packed in sawdust only. The nose is rounded to accomodate the extra load of balls and the casting in the nose is thin to encourage breakage forward in the nose. There are two chambers in the nose, all of the powder is in the lower chamber, all of the balls are in the upper chamber, there is an iron seperator bolt in the middle, with a hole and a narrow metal channel to allow the flame to pass from the fuze to detonate the powder in the lower chamber. On detonation, the exploding powder in the base was expected to push the seperator bolt and the balls forward and out the weak top section of the nose. The nose was cast as one part, the bottom is solid, the separator bolt apparently was precast and imbedded in the core, then positioned after casting once the core was removed, it is larger than the fuze opening. This early design did not have flame grooves, these were added in later patterns so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Fuze employed was a Hotchkiss lead time fuze, with spanner holes, early pattern did not have a flange, Jones pg. 86. Hotchkiss patent date was cast, not stamped, into the base, "HOTCHKISS PATENT OCTOBER 9, 1855", and is typically very weak and may have been omitted entirely as the molds wore down or were replaced. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs., average.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 164.

A0556...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7in. (unfired sabot), weight 9.3lbs. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss lead time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze, and the side. Recovered: Chancellorsville, Virginia.

A1830...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 6.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.3lb. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss lead time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze and through the side. Recovered: Chancellorsville, Virginia.

A2780...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, weight 8.8lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss lead time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 164.


Artillery 4323 Hotchkiss shell without flame grooves percussion fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern without flame grooves, pointed nose "common" (standard), lead band sabot, Hotchkiss percussion fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were "common" or standard rounds, explosive charge only, or "case shot", filled with balls. This shell is a "common" shell, (standard), it does not contain balls, and with a percussion fuze it was designed to be used against enemy cannon. The nose section is pointed, containing an open cavity for the explosive charge only, without a separator bolt. Nose section contains a plugged hole centered on the bottom, presumably this hole was used to secure the core on casting, then a plug was installed to seal the bottom. Hotchkiss patent date was cast, not stamped, into the base, "HOTCHKISS PATENT OCTOBER 9, 1855", and is typically very weak and may have been omitted entirely as the molds wore down or were replaced. Flame grooves were not used on this pattern, with a percussion fuze the flame groove was not needed. Fuze employed was a Hotchkiss percussion fuze, cap secured by a single slot tightening groove, with flange, Jones pg 94. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in., unfired, 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.0 to 8.5lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 166.

A0690...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.6lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.

A1615...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 6.4in., fired sabot compressed, weight 8.4lb. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi campaign.

A2060...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.2lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.

A2062...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.

A2066..

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 5.5in., weight 5lbs., nose section only. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Nose section and sabot only, base separated on firing, bottom rivet plug is exposed. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.

A2830...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi, as noted by old inscription on the shell.


Artillery 4324 Hotchkiss shell with flame grooves case shot lead time fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, rounded nose "case shot" iron balls packed in sawdust, iron separator bolt, lead band sabot, Hotchkiss lead time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were "common" or standard rounds, explosive charge only, or "case shot", filled with balls. This is "case shot", with a time fuze it was designed to be used against troops by spreading large volume of fragments and balls over the open field of fighting. Iron balls were packed in sawdust only. The nose is rounded to accomodate the extra load of balls and the casting in the nose is thin to encourage breakage forward in the nose. There are two chambers in the nose, all of the powder is in the lower chamber, all of the balls are in the upper chamber, there is an iron seperator bolt in the middle, with a hole and a narrow metal channel to allow the flame to pass from the fuze to detonate the powder in the lower chamber. On detonation, the exploding powder in the base was expected to push the seperator bolt and the balls forward and out the weak top section of the nose. The nose was cast as one part, the bottom is solid, the separator bolt apparently was precast and imbedded in the core, then positioned after casting once the core was removed, it is larger than the fuze opening. Three flame grooves were added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Fuze employed was a Hotchkiss lead time fuze, with spanner holes, early pattern did not have a flange, Jones pg. 86. Hotchkiss patent date was cast, not stamped, into the base, "HOTCHKISS PATENT OCTOBER 9, 1855", and is typically very weak and may have been omitted entirely as the molds wore down or were replaced. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs., average.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 164.

A2254...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8lbs. Projectile is cut showing cross section. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss lead fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, shell is cut open everything exposed. Recovered: Recovered: Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 164.

A2717...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, weight 9.0lbs. Struck shell, base shows indentation and cracks, it appears that shell was stuck by another shell presumably after this one landed. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss lead time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Fredericksburg, Virginia.

A2906...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, excluding fuze, weight 8.9lbs. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss lead time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg Virginia campaign.


Artillery 4325 Hotchkiss shell with flame grooves wood time fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, pointed nose "common" (standard), lead band sabot, wood time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were "common" or standard rounds, explosive charge only, or "case shot", filled with balls. This shell is a "common" shell, (standard), it does not contain balls, and with a time fuze it was designed to be used against either troops in the open field or enemy cannon. The nose section is pointed, containing an open cavity for the explosive charge only, without a separator bolt. Nose section contains a plugged hole centered on the bottom, presumably this hole was used to secure the core on casting, then a plug was installed to seal the bottom. Three flame grooves were added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Hotchkiss patent date was cast, not stamped, into the base, "HOTCHKISS PATENT OCTOBER 9, 1855", and is typically very weak and may have been omitted entirely as the molds wore down or were replaced. Three flame grooves added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in., unfired, 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8lbs., average.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 167.

A1831...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 6.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.4lb. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes interior. Recovered: not known.

A2498...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes interior. Recovered: Virginia campaign.

A2715...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes interior. Recovered: not known.

A2716...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 6lbs., ground burst missing sabot and some parts Recovered: Harris Farm, Virginia.


Artillery 4326 Hotchkiss shell with flame grooves brass time fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, pointed nose "common" (standard), lead band sabot, Hotchkiss brass time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were "common" or standard rounds, explosive charge only, or "case shot", filled with balls. This shell is a "common" shell, (standard), it does not contain balls, and with a time fuze it was designed to be used against either troops in the open field or enemy cannon. The nose section is pointed, containing an open cavity for the explosive charge only, without a separator bolt. Nose section contains a plugged hole centered on the bottom, presumably this hole was used to secure the core on casting, then a plug was installed to seal the bottom. Hotchkiss patent date was cast, not stamped, into the base, "HOTCHKISS PATENT OCTOBER 9, 1855", and is typically very weak and may have been omitted entirely as the molds wore down or were replaced. Three flame grooves added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Fuze employed was a Hotchkiss brass time fuze, with slots and a flange, Jones pg. 87. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in., unfired, 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8lbs., average.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 167.

A0910...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, pointed nose "common" (standard), lead band sabot, Hotchkiss brass time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in., fired from Parrott, 10 pounder.
Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight not verified. Lead band sabot shows three lands and grooves, this one was fired from a Parrott rifle and not an Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss did not approve use of his shells in Parrott rifles, because the small number of rifling grooves produced so much torque on the sabot, failure rate was unacceptably high. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Spotsylvania Court House February 25, 1981, by Mac Mason. Hotchkiss shell fired from Parrott 10 pounder rifle.

A1619...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in., unfired, 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8lbs., not verified. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.

A2223...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5 excluding fuze, weight 5lbs., nose section only. Nose section only, lead band sabot and base separated on firing, bottom rivet plug is exposed. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: north Georgia campaign.

A2312...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid with some pitting. Shell is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.

A2366...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.2lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Shell is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2489...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.3lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Shell is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Bermuda Hundred, Virginia.

A2720...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.3lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid. Shell is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Bermuda Hundred, Virginia.

A2988...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in., unfired, 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.5lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Fishers Hill, Virginia.

A2989...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in., unfired, 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.5lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Fishers Hill, Virginia..

A2990...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in., unfired, 6.5in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.5lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Fishers Hill, Virginia, Charles Rutz.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.


Artillery 4327 Hotchkiss shell with flame grooves case shot brass time fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, rounded nose, "case shot" lead balls packed loose without matrix or with asphalt matrix, iron separator bolt, lead band sabot, Hotchkiss brass time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were "common" or standard rounds, explosive charge only, or "case shot", filled with balls. This is "case shot", with a time fuze it was designed to be used against troops by spreading large volume of fragments and balls over the open field of fighting. Lead balls were packed in sawdust only, early production, or black asphalt matrix, later production. The nose is rounded to accomodate the extra load of balls and the casting in the nose is thin to encourage breakage forward in the nose. There are two chambers in the nose, all of the powder is in the lower chamber, all of the balls are in the upper chamber, there is an iron seperator bolt in the middle, with a hole and a narrow metal channel to allow the flame to pass from the fuze to detonate the powder in the lower chamber. On detonation, the exploding powder in the base was expected to push the seperator bolt and the balls forward and out the weak top section of the nose. The nose was cast as one part, the bottom is solid, the separator bolt apparently was precast and imbedded in the core, then positioned after casting once the core was removed, it is larger than the fuze opening. Three flame grooves added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Fuze employed was a Hotchkiss brass time fuze, with slots and a flange, Jones pg. 87. Hotchkiss patent date was cast, not stamped, into the base, "HOTCHKISS PATENT OCTOBER 9, 1855", and is typically very weak and may have been omitted entirely as the molds wore down or were replaced. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs., average.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 167.

A0050...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7in. (excluding fuze, unfired sabot), weight 8.9lbs. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Cedar Creek trenches, Virginia by Harry Ridgeway, 1960's.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.

A1815...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.98in., length 6.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.6lb. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.

A2069...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.

A2103...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, excluding fuze, weight 8.9lbs. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Allatoona Pass, Georgia.

A2166...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, excluding fuze, weight 9.2lbs. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: north Georgia campaign.

A2241....

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2395...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 5.5in., excluding fuze, weight 5.5lbs., nose section only. Nose section only, lead band sabot and base separated on firing, there is no bottom rivet plug. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Dug Gap, Georgia.

A2411...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, rounded nose, "case shot" lead balls packed loose without matrix or with asphalt matrix, iron separator bolt, lead band sabot, Hotchkiss brass time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in., fired from a Parrott 10 pounder.

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.9lbs. Cut shell shows cross section. Lead band sabot shows three lands and grooves, this one was fired from a Parrott rifle and not an Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss did not approve use of his shells in Parrott rifles, because the small number of rifling grooves produced so much torque on the sabot, failure rate was unacceptably high. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything open. Recovered: not known.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 167. Cut shell shows cross section, and Hotchkiss shell fired from Parrott rifle.

A2455...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.8lbs. Projectile is cut showing cross section. Note that lead balls melted and congregated around the seperator bolt. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything open. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.

A2456...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Bermuda Hundred, Virginia.

A2633...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.8lbs. Cut shell shows cross section. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything open. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.

A2806...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9.0lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Bermuda Hundred, Virginia.

A2807...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, rounded nose, "case shot" lead balls packed loose without matrix or with asphalt matrix, iron separator bolt, lead band sabot, Hotchkiss brass time fuze, Ordnance rifle, 3in., Hotchkiss shell fired from Parrott rifle.

PProjectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows three lands and grooves, this one was fired from a Parrott rifle and not an Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss did not approve use of his shells in Parrott rifles, because the small number of rifling grooves produced so much torque on the sabot, failure rate was unacceptably high. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Bermuda Hundred, Virginia.

A2926...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs. Cut shell shows cross section. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything open. Recovered: not known.

A2933...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.3lbs. Cut shell shows cross section. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Metal solid with pitting. Projectile is disarmed, cut shell everything open. Recovered: not known.

A2991...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 8.8lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: 1864 Shenandoah Valley Virginia campaign, Fishers Hill, Virginia, by Charles Rutz.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.

A2992...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: 1864 Shenandoah Valley Virginia campaign, Fishers Hill, Virginia.

A2993...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.0in unfired, 6.75in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9.1lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: 1864 Shenandoah Valley Virginia campaign, Fishers Hill, Virginia.

A3030.

Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 6.5in., fired sabot compressed, weight 8.9lb. Sabot was fired from Ordnance rifle, and barely took the rifling. Brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Spotsylvania, Virginia.

Artillery 4328 Hotchkiss shell with flame grooves flat top case shot brass time fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, flat top "case shot" lead balls, lead band sabot, Hotchkiss brass time fuze , Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were configured as case shot, filled with balls, or as "common", without balls. This shell is "case shot", explosive charge with lead balls, and with a time fuze was designed to detonate above the heads of troops in the open field. This pattern features a nearly flat nose designed to pack additional "case shot" balls, the fuze is brass and the balls are lead. Three flame grooves added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Shell cavity is split into two parts, upper chamber contained iron balls, bottom chamber contained the explosive charge, on detonation a bolt would force the balls out the top of the shell. Bottom of shell is rounded. Fuze employed was a Hotchkiss brass time fuze, with slots and a flange, Jones pg. 87. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in unfired, 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 168.

A0299...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 6.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.9lbs. Lead band sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from the Ordnance rifle. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact.Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Spanish Fort Alabama.

A1818...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.5in unfired, 6.25in. sabot compressed from firing, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs., not verified. Lead band sabot is not fired. Hotchkiss brass time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Franklin, Tennessee.


Artillery 4329 Hotchkiss shell with flame grooves flat top case shot combination fuze 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with flame grooves, flat top "case shot" lead balls, lead band sabot, Wright time fuze with Hotchkiss percussion fuze , Ordnance rifle, 3in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Andrew Hotchkiss. The pattern consisted of three parts, a nose section containing the explosive charge, a cast iron cup fitted on the bottom, and lead band sabot cast around the middle, on firing the cup would compress the lead band sabot expanding it into the rifling. Some of these shells were configured as case shot , filled with balls, or as "common", without balls. This shell is "case shot", explosive charge with lead balls, and with a time fuze was designed to detonate above the heads of troops in the open field. This pattern features a nearly flat nose designed to pack additional "case shot" balls. Three flame grooves added so that flame from firing would pass through the sabot and ignite the fuze. Bottom of shell is somewhat flat. Fuze employed was a 15 second Wright time fuze, Hotchkiss brass percussion fuze installed in the center, Jones pg. 28. Although thought to have been in production by the end of the war, none made it into the field by the time of the surrender. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. unfired, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 170.

A0054....

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 6.75in. unfired, excluding fuze, weight 9lbs. Inspector mark, "JHS". Lead band sabot is not fired. Wright time fuze intact, percussion fuze removed when these shells were sold as scrap. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.


Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., fragments


A0052...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., fragments, base and sabot from case shot.
Top blew off this case shot leaving base, sabot and bottom of the nose. Clearly visible is a pin that was imbedded in the bottom, purpose is not entirely clear. The powder was in the bottom and there was a seperator bolt above the powder. Most seem to have had a tube to the bottom but some seem to have had this pin. Recovered: Harry Ridgeway Frederick County, Virginia.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0053...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., fragments., base sabot and bottom of nose from case shot.
Top is blown from this fired example, exposing the interior, separator bolt and tube into the lower powder chamber. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A0200.15...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., fragments
This is sampling of fragments from 3 inch Hotchkiss. Hotchkiss was probably used more in the Shenadoah Valley than any other patterns. The lead sabot would often seperate from firing, it would get hot and soft, and peel and coil typically. The base section will usually seperate as a unit, the very thin fragments often found, and often mistaken for farm junk are from the sides of the base. Common shells had a single cavity and are thick and rounded in the nose. Case shot shells are thin in the nose and often would break at the weak section of the nose. Case shot had a dual chamber, balls were on top and a seperator bolt seperated the case shot balls from the powder chamber below. On case shot the step to hold the bolt is often visible. Most Hotchkiss had flame grooves, this created another point of weakness and often the fragments will show somewhat straight lines as the break followed the flame grooves. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia 1863 and 1864 campaigns, Second and Third Battles of Winchester and Battle of Cedar Creek, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0984...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., fragments
This entire fragment seperated from its shell, curled up from the heat of firing and was distorted, but was discharged intact. It clearly shows the 7 lands and grooves from the Ordnance rifle. Recovered: Shepherdstown Virginia (now West Virginia), by Ian Workman.

A1828...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., case shot ground burst.
Top is blown from this fired example, exposing the interior, notice the thin area at the top, section of nose with brass time fuze intact is included.

A1829...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., case shot blown top.
Top is blown from this fired example, exposing the interior, notice the thin area at the top, section of nose with lead fuze intact is included. Recovered: Chancellorsville, Virginia.

A2912...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., fragments, cut base and sabot from case shot.
Bottom cut from a base, case shot with Wright time fuze.
Do not publish., not a very good illustration.

A2913...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, Federal manufacture,Ordnance rifle, 3in., ground burst case shot nose.
Ground burst includes about half of the pieces, including the fuze, base and a number of side fragments.

A2996...Rifled artillery projectile, Hotchkiss design, 3in., base sabot and section of nose from common shell.
Hotchkiss fragment, base, sabot shows 7 lands and grooves, and part of the nose, top blew off. The nose section shows the pin in the bottom. Recovered: 1864 Shenandoah Valley Virginia campaign, Fishers Hill, Virginia.

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