Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, James design, 3.8in.
Artillery 4520 James 3.8in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.

Weapons used:
James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in. Caliber of the gun is 3.8in., 14 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 3.73in. approximately, variations will be found.

Artillery 4521 James canister 3.8in.
Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, tall lead canister, canvass covered, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The entire projectile was covered with a canvass sleeve. Apparently this was field tested at Shiloh, as the few parts recovered have all come from this site. Projectile measures: diameter 3.8in canister length is 5.5in, base length is 3in.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 61.

A1406...James canister, tall lead can, canvass covered, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The entire projectile was covered with a canvass sleeve. Apparently this was field tested at Shiloh, as the few parts recovered have all come from this site. Projectile measures: diameter 3.8in canister length is 5.5in, base length is 3in. Base only. Recovdered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 61.


Artillery 4522 James bolt 3.8in.
Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, rifled James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (referred to as a "birdcage", this is not a contemporary term) covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 12lbs, with sabot.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 187.

A0301...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, rifled James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (referred to as a "birdcage", this is not a contemporary term) covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 13.4lbs, with sabot. Sleeve sabot intact and un-fired. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 187.

A1886...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, rifled James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (referred to as a "birdcage", this is not a contemporary term) covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 12lbs, with sabot. Sleeve sabot intact and un-fired. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 187.

A2710...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, rifled James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (referred to as a "birdcage", this is not a contemporary term) covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 11.6lbs. Projectile is fired, sleeve sabot is missing exposing the birdcage. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 187.

A2711. Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, rifled James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (referred to as a "birdcage", this is not a contemporary term) covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 12.3lbs, with sabot. Sleeve sabot intact and un-fired. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 187.

A2938...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, rifled James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (referred to as a "birdcage", this is not a contemporary term) covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 11.3lbs. Projectile is fired, sleeve sabot is missing exposing the birdcage. Projectile is disarmed, casting is solid iron. Recovered: not known.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 187.


Artillery 4523 James shell birdcage flat base 3.8in.
Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 10lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.

A0059...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.8lbs. Sabot missing on this fired example, percussion fuze & slider are original to this shell. The anvil cap was only partly screwed on and the percussioncap fell off and was flattened on impact, thus it failed to detonate. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.

A1557...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in., weight 10.9lb. with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot un-fired. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.

A1558...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in., weight 10.9lb. with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot un-fired. West Point percussion fuze is missing top, slider and nipple exposed. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.

A1559...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
A1559.jpg (23967 bytes) A1559B.jpg (23068 bytes) A1559C.jpg (18607 bytes) A1559D.jpg (19634 bytes) Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in., weight 10lbs. Projectile is fired, lead sleeve sabot is missing, exposes the birdcage. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.

A1887...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in., weight 10.9lb. with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot un-fired. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.

A2970...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there would always be flying metal debris from the sabot, which could be a problem for forward troops. Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30. Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 9.8lbs. Projectile is fired, lead sleeve sabot is missing, exposes the birdcage. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 188.


Artillery 4524 James shell birdcage tie ring base 3.8in.
Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead , tin , and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 10lbs , with sabot.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A0331...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead , tin , and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 10lbs , with sabot. Projectile is fired, lead sleeve sabot is missing, exposes the birdcage. West Point percussion fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A0861...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead , tin , and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 10lbs, with sabot. Projectile is fired, lead sleeve sabot is missing, exposes the birdcage. West Point percussion fuze is replacement. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A1560...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead , tin , and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 12.3lb., with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot is un-fired. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A1561. Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead , tin , and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 10lbs , with sabot. Projectile is fired, lead sleeve sabot is missing, exposes the birdcage. West Point percussion fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A2537...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead , tin , and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 10lbs , with sabot. Projectile is fired, lead sleeve sabot is missing, exposes the birdcage. West Point percussion fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Shiloh, Tennessee.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.


Artillery 4525 James shell bird cage tie ring base case shot 3.8in.
Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "case shot"iron balls packed in sulfur matrix, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is " case shot", explosive charge with iron balls, packed in sulfur matrix. It is highly unusual for a shell to be equipped with a percussion fuze and case shot, normally case shot shells use time fuzes to explode near an enemy line without needing to strike the target. However, at least one battery was given percussion fuzed case shot shells, any that actually hit the target would also have spread case shot, it is doubtful this was effective. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 11lbs, with sabot, and case shot.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A1888...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "case shot"iron balls packed in sulfur matrix, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is " case shot", explosive charge with iron balls, packed in sulfur matrix. It is highly unusual for a shell to be equipped with a percussion fuze and case shot, normally case shot shells use time fuzes to explode near an enemy line without needing to strike the target. However, at least one battery was given percussion fuzed case shot shells, any that actually hit the target would also have spread case shot, it is doubtful this was effective. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 6.75in. weight 11lbs, with sabot, and case shot. Sleeve sabot un-fired, intact with small break. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: Gauley Bridge, West Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.

A2941...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "case shot"iron balls packed in sulfur matrix, open base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, tie ring base, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The pattern utilized a hollow caged cavity (called a "birdcage") covered by a thin sleeve of lead, tin, and canvass, the thin sabot would expand into the rifling, and then be discharged after the projectile left the bore. This meant that there always be flying metal debris which could be a problem for forward troops . Four small holes were drilled into the base, these are thought to have been vent holes, however they are often lead filled. A ring around the base was originally installed to hold an iron cup, however it appears the iron cup may not have been used and the tie ring either was abandoned or used to secure the powder bag. Shell is " case shot", explosive charge with iron balls, packed in sulfur matrix. It is highly unusual for a shell to be equipped with a percussion fuze and case shot, normally case shot shells use time fuzes to explode near an enemy line without needing to strike the target. However, at least one battery was given percussion fuzed case shot shells, any that actually hit the target would also have spread case shot, it is doubtful this was effective. Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze, Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length not meaningful due to split, weight 10.6lb. Fuze and sabot are missing, both presumably separated on firing. Dug shell split into two parts, top and bottom, as moisture entered the shell, the matrix expanded causing shell to split along the line of greatest weakness which was the section around the mid ring, Projectile is disarmed, shell split into to parts fully exposing the interior. Recovered: Gauley Bridge, West Virginia by Dean Weinbrenner, another example shown from the same site and digger, D & G page 530.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 189.


Artillery 4526 James shell closed base 3.8in.
Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), closed base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The earlier hollow caged cavity was replaced with a flanged base with tapered tail, covered by a thick lead sabot, referred to as Type II. This eliminated the automatic blowout of the sabot from the hollow cavity design, but left a very heavy sabot that tended to significantly distort on firing, consequently this pattern was not particularly successful either. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze , Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 7.5in. weight 14lbs , with sabot.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 190.

A0060...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), closed base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The earlier hollow caged cavity was replaced with a flanged base with tapered tail, covered by a thick lead sabot, referred to as Type II. This eliminated the automatic blowout of the sabot from the hollow cavity design, but left a very heavy sabot that tended to significantly distort on firing, consequently this pattern was not particularly successful either. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze , Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 7.5in. weight 14lbs , with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot is fired and distorted. West Point percussion fuze is intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 190.

A1074...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), closed base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The earlier hollow caged cavity was replaced with a flanged base with tapered tail, covered by a thick lead sabot, referred to as Type II. This eliminated the automatic blowout of the sabot from the hollow cavity design, but left a very heavy sabot that tended to significantly distort on firing, consequently this pattern was not particularly successful either. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze , Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 7.5in. weight 14lbs, with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot is fired and distorted. West Point percussion fuze is intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Alabama coastal area.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 190.

A1563...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), closed base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The earlier hollow caged cavity was replaced with a flanged base with tapered tail, covered by a thick lead sabot, referred to as Type II. This eliminated the automatic blowout of the sabot from the hollow cavity design, but left a very heavy sabot that tended to significantly distort on firing, consequently this pattern was not particularly successful either. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze , Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 7.5in. weight 14lbs , with sabot. Lead sleeve sabot may be unfired.. West Point percussion fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 190.

A1889...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), closed base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The earlier hollow caged cavity was replaced with a flanged base with tapered tail, covered by a thick lead sabot, referred to as Type II. This eliminated the automatic blowout of the sabot from the hollow cavity design, but left a very heavy sabot that tended to significantly distort on firing, consequently this pattern was not particularly successful either. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze , Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 7.5in. weight 13.6lb., with partial sabot. Lead sleeve sabot is fired and distorted. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the side. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 190.

A2943...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard), closed base with slots, lead and tin sleeve sabot, James percussion fuze, James 14 pounder rifle, 3.8in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Charles James. The earlier hollow caged cavity was replaced with a flanged base with tapered tail, covered by a thick lead sabot, referred to as Type II. This eliminated the automatic blowout of the sabot from the hollow cavity design, but left a very heavy sabot that tended to significantly distort on firing, consequently this pattern was not particularly successful either. Shell is common shot (does not contain balls) and with percussion fuze was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment . Fuze employed was the James brass anvil percussion fuze, "West Point" two part fuze , Jones pg. 30 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.7in., length 7.5in. weight 11.7lb, remnants of sabot only. Fired shell, sabot partially separated on firing. West Point percussion fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the bottom. Recovered Vicksburg, Mississippi.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 190.


Rifled artillery projectile, James design, fragments

A1999...Rifled artillery projectile, James design, fragments

The type I James used a thin lead sheet sabot covering the birdcage. The sabot tends to break in sections around the birdcage. Note also the remnants of wire that held the sabot in place.


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