Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, narrow ring brass sabot, 2.9in.
Artillery 4630 Parrott narrow ring sabot 2.9in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.

Weapons used:
Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Caliber of the gun is 2.6in., 3 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.85 in. approximately, variations will be found.
Ordnance rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 7 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be found.


Artillery 4631 Parrott bolt, flat top, brass ring sabot, 2.9in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, "flat top" pattern, narrow ring brass sabot, Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Robert Parrott. The sabot system utilized was a narrow brass ring secured to the base with internal rabbets, referred to as "type III", more flexible than wrought iron and more narrow than the high band, this took the rifling much better than the earlier designs. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment, use of this light bolt had limited applicability and is relatively scarce in the smaller calibers. Nose of this pattern is blunt, top is nearly flat. Bottom of shell usually shows a casting sprue which was rough milled, there will often be casting flaws near the base. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 6.6in., weight 10lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 222.

A0068...

PProjectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 6.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.9lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Metal strong. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: Vicksburg, Mississippi.


Artillery 4632 Parrott bolt, chill nose, brass ring sabot, 2.9in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Federal manufacture, solid bolt, "chill nose" pattern, narrow ring brass sabot, Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Robert Parrott. The sabot system utilized was a narrow brass ring secured to the base with internal rabbets, referred to as "type III", more flexible than wrought iron and more narrow than the high band, this took the rifling much better than the earlier designs. Shell is solid casting, or "bolt" and was designed to be used against opposing cannon by striking the equipment, use of this light bolt had limited applicability and is relatively scarce in the smaller calibers. The blunt nose of this bolt was hardened by "chilling", a process of rapid cooling after casting, and was tapered to a smaller diameter in order to concentrate the force on impact. Bottom of shell usually shows a casting sprue which was rough milled, there will often be casting flaws near the base. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 7in., weight 10lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 223.

A0069...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 7.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.7lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Metal is solid, nondug shell. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: surplus stocks, probably Bannerman.

A1862...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 7in., weight 10lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact. Metal is solid, areas of light pitting. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: New Hope Church, Georgia.


Artillery 4633 Parrott shell, "common" pattern, brass ring sabot, West Point percussion fuze 2.9in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard) pattern, narrow ring brass sabot, Parrott percussion fuze West Point Style, Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Robert Parrott. The sabot system utilized was a narrow brass ring secured to the base with internal rabbets, referred to as "type III", more flexible than wrought iron and more narrow than the high band, this took the rifling much better than the earlier designs. Some of these shells were configured as case shot (approx 9.5lbs to 11lbs. with balls ), or as "common" (approx 8lbs. to 9lbs. without balls). This shell is a "common" shell, (standard), it does not contain balls, and with a percussion fuze it was designed to detonate after striking enemy cannon or equipment. Fuze employed was a Parrott zinc percussion fuze, "West Point" style two part fuze, Jones pg. 79, fuze hole will have a thin milled lip. Bottom of shell usually shows a casting sprue which was rough milled, there will often be casting flaws near the base. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.375in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. to 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 226.

A1578...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.9lb. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze fully intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the side. Recovered: not determined.


Artillery 4634 Parrott shell, "common" pattern, brass ring sabot, improved one part percussion fuze 2.9in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard) pattern, narrow ring brass sabot, Parrott "improved one part" percussion fuze, Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Robert Parrott. The sabot system utilized was a narrow brass ring secured to the base with internal rabbets, referred to as "type III", more flexible than wrought iron and more narrow than the high band, this took the rifling much better than the earlier designs. Some of these shells were configured as case shot (approx 9.5lbs to 11lbs. with balls ), or as "common" (approx 8lbs. to 9lbs. without balls). This shell is a "common" shell, (standard), it does not contain balls, and with a percussion fuze it was designed to detonate after striking enemy cannon or equipment. Fuze employed was a Parrott zinc "improved" one part design, with a flange, Jones, Fuzes, pg. 81, edge of the fuze hole is milled flat. Bottom of shell usually shows a casting sprue which was rough milled, there will often be casting flaws near the base. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.375in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. to 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 226.

A1579...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.3lb. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze is fully intact. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 226.

A1863...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.4lb. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Percussion fuze is intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the side. Recovered: North Carolina defenses, Sugar Loaf Island.

A2326...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze is fully intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: not determined.

A2251...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Percussion fuze is partial, nipple on slider is visible. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the side, not photographed. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2317...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Percussion fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the center of the fuze. Recovered: not determined.

A2365...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.2lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the center of the fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2404...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.4lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Percussion fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the center of the fuze. Recovered: Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia.

A2611...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.9lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze is partial, nipple on slider is visible. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the side. Recovered: North Carolina defenses.

A2821...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.7lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Percussion fuze is partial, nipple on slider is visible. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the bottom. Recovered: not determined

A2924...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 9lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves. Percussion fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the center of the fuze. Recovered: Resaca Georgia.


Artillery 4635 Parrott shell, "common" pattern, brass ring sabot, Schenkl percussion fuze 2.9in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "common" (standard) pattern, narrow ring brass sabot, Schenkl percussion fuze, Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Robert Parrott. The sabot system utilized was a narrow brass ring secured to the base with internal rabbets, referred to as "type III", more flexible than wrought iron and more narrow than the high band, this took the rifling much better than the earlier designs. Some of these shells were configured as case shot (approx 9.5lbs to 11lbs. with balls ), or as "common" (approx 8lbs. to 9lbs. without balls). This shell is a "common" shell, (standard), it does not contain balls, and with a percussion fuze it was designed to detonate after striking enemy cannon or equipment. Fuze employed was a Schenkl Army percussion fuze, removable cap had a slider and percussion cap, head is 1.22in.or 1.25in., 10 threads per inch, marked "JP SCHENKL / PAT OCT 16 1861", Jones pg. 98 or 99., top of the fuze hole is milled flat. Bottom of shell usually shows a casting sprue which was rough milled, there will often be casting flaws near the base. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.375in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. to 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 226.

A0306...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.3lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact. Percussion fuze is fully intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the side. Recovered: Culpeper, Virginia by W. R. Roderick.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia


Artillery 4636 Parrott shell, case shot, brass ring sabot, Parrott time fuze 2.9in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Federal manufacture, bursting shell, "case shot" lead balls packed in asphalt matrix, narrow ring brass sabot, Parrott time fuze with a flange, Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was manufactured in the Federal arsenals following the invention of Robert Parrott. The sabot system utilized was a narrow brass ring secured to the base with internal rabbets, referred to as "type III", more flexible than wrought iron and more narrow than the high band, this took the rifling much better than the earlier designs. Some of these shells were configured as case shot (approx 9.5lbs to 11lbs. with balls ), or as "common" (approx 8lbs. to 9lbs. without balls). This shell is "case shot", explosive charge with lead balls, and with a time fuze was designed to detonate above the heads of troops in the open field. The lead case shot balls are rough cast around .69 cal, packed in black asphalt matrix near the top of the shell, powder packed in a long channel which expands near the bottom, on detonation the concentrated powder at the bottom was designed to burn the matrix and propel the balls and fragments forward. Fuze employed was a a Parrott zinc time fuze, typically the pattern with a rounded top and flange, an innovation to prevent gas leaks around the fuze causing premature detonations, Jones, Fuzes, pg. 77 upper left, edge of the fuze hole is milled flat. Bottom of shell usually shows a casting sprue which was rough milled, there will often be casting flaws near the base. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.375in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.5lbs. to 11lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 226.

A1864...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.5in., (excluding the fuze), weight 10lbs. Sabot is not fired and is intact. Time fuze intact and is removable. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: removable fuze exposes interior. Recovered: surplus stocks.

A2255...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 10lbs. Cut shell, shows cross section, note fuze hole has no flanges, powder cavity is centered, top of fuze hole is milled flat, and there are significant casting flaws in the base. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves and is intact. Time fuze is partial. Metal is solid, with areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: cut shell, everything is exposed. Recovered: Fredericksburg, Virginia. Cut shell shows cross section.

A2466...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 10lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact. Time fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Kennesaw, Georgia.

A2548...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 10.0lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact. Time fuze is intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not determined.

A2782...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 10.5lbs. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact. Time fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not determined.

A2881...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.6lbs., sabot missing. Cut shell, shows cross section, note fuze hole has no flanges, powder cavity is centered, top of fuze hole is milled flat, and there are significant casting flaws in the base. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Time fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: cut shell, everything is exposed. Recovered: not determined. Cut shell shows cross section.

A2987...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.375in. (excluding fuze), weight 10.3lb. Sabot is not fired, and is intact. Time fuze is fully intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not determined.


Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, 2.9in and 3in., fragments

A0200.18...Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, 2.9in and 3in., fragments
These are fragments from Parrott shells, base sections. Iron saboted Parrotts were thick and pre rifled for three grooves. The shells were poured from the bottom, air bubbles typically form around the base of almost all Parrotts, and the casting sprue in the middle will be milled. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia campaigns, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0200.19...Rifled artillery projectile, 2.9in and 3in., fragments
Nose sections of 2.9in. and 3in. projectiles could be from Federal or Confederate shells. Parrott shells will often have a bottom lip to nest the fuze, but not all are configured this way. All of the examples above are threaded. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia campaigns, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0200.20...Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, 2.9in and 3in., fragments
Nose sections of 2.9in. and 3in. projectiles could be from Federal or Confederate shells. Parrott shells will often have a bottom lip to nest the fuze, but not all are configured this way. Some of these fragments are wood fuzed and some are threaded. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia campaigns, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0200.21...Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, 2.9in and 3in., fragments
Smooth side sections of 2.9in. and 3in. projectiles could be from Federal or Confederate shells. T Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia campaigns, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A2324...Parrott 10 pounder, nose section with time fuze.

Large fragment of a Parrott 10 pounder, with zinc time fuze intact, shell shows definite indentation where it hit something very hard, case shots are imbedded inside the nose.

A2202...Parrott 10 pounder, nose section with time fuze.

Large fragment of a Parrott 10 pounder, with zinc time fuze.

A2204...Parrott 10 pounder, nose section with time fuze.

Large fragment of a Parrott 10 pounder, nose section with flanged zinc time fuze.

A2230...Parrott 10 pounder, nose section with time fuze.

Large fragment of a Parrott 10 pounder, with zinc time fuze intact.

A2352...Parrott 10 pounder, "case shot", wrought iron sabot.

Ground burst base and one side recovered, balls are still packed, great illustration of case shot.

A2935...Parrott 10 pounder, West point percussion fuze, shell detonated while drilling, these are the frags.


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