Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, 2.9in., and 3in.
Artillery 5020 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.


Weapons used:
Parrott 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in. Caliber of the gun is 2.6in., 3 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.85 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Confederate 10 pounder rifle, 2.9in. Caliber of the gun is 2.9in., 3 grooves, (apparently copied from Federal 10 pounder), projectile diameter should measure 2.85 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Ordnance rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 7 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Confederate rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 7 grooves, (apparently copied from Federal 3 in. Ordnance rifle), projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Confederate rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 12 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be noted.


Artillery 5021 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, pattern with rounded nose and bourrelet rings, thick copper ring sabot, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war employing John Read's design , probably at Selma Arsenal. This pattern utilized two bourreletrings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. The nose is relatively rounded, and the width of the bourrelet rings varies considerably, presumably this is operator variance in the finishing process. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose areusually prominent. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base. Copper ring sabot was cast thick and not milled , this was entirely too stiff to take the rifling. Shell is rounded nose bolt with no explosive charge, for use against enemy cannon. Upper bourrelet ring is usually stamped "14", meaning is not known. Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 6.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.2lb.
Ref: Dickey & George , Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 252.

A0362...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 6.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.2lb. Thick brass band sabot unfired. Metal solid, sabot intact. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron casting without cavity. Recovered: Snyder's Bluff Mississippi ammo dump.

A1528...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 6.0in. (excluding fuze), weight8.2lb. Thick brass band sabot unfired. Metal solid, sabot intact, mark "14" is crisp. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron casting without cavity. Recovered: Snyder's Bluff Mississippi ammo dump.

A1894...Rifled artillery projectile,Read design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with rounded noseand bourrelet rings, thick copper ring sabot, Confederaterifle, 3in.

Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 6.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.2lb.T hick brass band sabot unfired. Metal solid, sabot intact. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron casting without cavity. Recovered: Snyder's Bluff Mississippi ammo dump.


Artillery 5022 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with pointed nose bourrelet rings, copper ring sabot, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war employing John Read's design , probably at Selma Arsenal. This pattern utilized two bourreletrings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. The nose is relatively pointed, and the width of the bourrelet rings varies considerably, presumably this is operator variance in the finishing process. The base is raised and milled to a bevel leaving a considerable depressed ring between the base and the sabot, there is no lathe dimple although this could have been milled out of the flat bottom. Read developed this copperring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot istapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base. Copper ring sabot was cast thin and is lightly milled. Shell is pointed nose bolt with no explosive charge, for use against enemy cannon. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 6.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.1lb.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 254.

A0082...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 6.25in. (excluding fuze),weight 8.1lb. High brass band sabot shows12 lands and grooves, and somedistortion from firing. Metalsmooth, fired sabot intact. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron castingwithout a cavity. Recovered: Fort Clifton, Virginia.

A1421...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 6.25in.(excluding fuze), weight 8.1lb. High brass band sabot shows irregular rifling likely due to slippage, this was probably fired from a Federal 3 in. Ordnance Rifle, with 7 lands and grooves. Metalsmooth, fired sabot intact. Projectile is disarmed, solid iron castingwithout a cavity. Recovered: Chancellorsville, Virginia, by Bill Ritenour.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.


Artillery 5031 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with smooth sides long pattern, wrought iron sabot, rifling precast, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. The wrought iron sabot did not take the rifling satisfactorily, three lands and grooves were precast into this sabot . Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered intoplace. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in., weight 8lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A1767...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in., weight not determined. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired fromParrott type rifle. Metal is solid, wood fuze missing,wrought iron sabot intact.Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty cavity. Recovered: Richmond, Virginia.

A1895...
A1895.jpg (12535 bytes) A1895B.jpg (12853 bytes) A1895C.jpg (12915 bytes) Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the side, not photographed. Recovered: notknown.

A1897...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in., weight 8lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle and is intact. Wood fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.

A2154...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in.,length 9in., weight not determined. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrotttype rifle and is intact. Wood fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty cavity. Recovered: not known.


Artillery 5032 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with smooth sides long pattern, wrought iron sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered intoplace. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in., weight 8lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A0079...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.3lbs. Iron sabot does not appear to have been pre-rifled. Wood fuze missing. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Third Battle of Winchester, Virginia, by Eddie See, 1960's.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A2354...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.8in. length 8.75in. weight 8lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle. Metal is solid with pitting, wood fuze intact, wrought iron sabot is rusted out. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered Vicksburg, Mississippi.

A3035...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in., weight 8lbs.Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle. Metal is solid , wood fuze missing. Projectile is disarmed open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5033 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with smooth sides long pattern, grooved ring around the base, wrought iron sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered intoplace. This pattern shows a grooved ring around the base, possibly used to seal the chamber with a grease or rope ring. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 246.

A0080...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.9lbs. Iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, does not appear to be pre-rifled. Wood fuze missing. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5034 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, wrought iron sabot, rifling precast, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewarinvention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wroughtiron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple inthe base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished byturning on a lathe. Although the wrought iron sabot was cast much thinner than theFederal counterpart, it still did not take the rifling satisfactorily, threelands and grooves were precast into this sabot . Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George,> Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A0077...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding fuze), weight 9.7lbs. Wrought iron sabot is fired and intact. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality strong. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Third Battle of Winchester, Virginia by Harry Ridgeway in 1960's.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A2650...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle and is intact. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2750...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 10lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle, and is intact. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5035 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, wrought iron sabot , rifling not precast, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. The wrought iron sabot on this model was cast much thinner than earlier versions, consequently the rifling on this sabot was not precast. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A1896...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs. Wrought iron sabot does not appear to be pre-rifled and is intact. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A1898...
A1898.jpg (14390 bytes) A1898B.jpg (14761 bytes) A1898C.jpg (14224 bytes)
Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle, does not appear to be pre-rifled. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.

A2240...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from Parrott type rifle, and is intact. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze, and drill hole through the side. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2750...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 10lbs. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired fromParrott type rifle, and is intact. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the papersection of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2896...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in.(excluding the fuze), weight 10.1lbs. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg, Virginia campaign. Wrought iron sabot shows three lands & grooves, for Parrott rifle. Metal strong, Confederate brass time fuze intact, fired sabot intact.


Artillery 5036 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture Tredegar, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, wrought iron sabot, rifling not precast, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured, this one is believed to have been produced at Tredegar, Richmond Virginia. Read and Parrott collaborated before the war to develop a projectile employing the wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose . The shell was lathe turned, a weak bourrelet ring is left at the top and the bottom. The wrought iron sabot on this model was cast much thinner than earlier versions, consequently the rifling on this sabot was not precast. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 247.

A1179...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.7lb. Fired sabot is intact, with a major chip from firing. Copper time fuze intact. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Gettysburg, early pickup.

A1555...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs. Wrought iron sabot is not fired. Copper fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Gettysburg campaign, not confirmed.

A2155...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9lbs. Wrought iron sabot is not fired. Metal is solid, Copper time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Fredericksburg, Virginia.


Artillery 5037 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, wrought iron sabot is thick, rifling is not precast, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle 3in.
The sabot on this shell is unusually thick and is very similar to the Parrott wrought iron sabots. Shell is slightly shorter than most Read shells, and is more typical of the height of the Parrott shells. However, shell appears to be Confederate manufacture, evidenced by the prominent lathe dimple in the base and Confederate time fuze. It is a close copy to the Federal Parrott and likely was an attempt to was simulate the successful Federal design.Note that although the sabot is thick, too thick to take the rifling, rifling grooves were not precast into this model. This pattern was likely made early in the conflict , probably judged to be inadequate and thus limited in productionand held in stock, but issued late when supplies became desperate. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in. height 8.5in (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs (metal is light).
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A2334...

TProjectile measures: diameter 2.94in. height 8.5in (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs (metal is light). Wrought iron sabot is thick and may be un-fired. Metal surface is soft but stable and with pitting, some weight loss, sabot intact copper time fuze is intact. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered Washington NC, 1865 campaign.


Artillery 5038 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Parrott design, Confederate manufacture or modified, bursting shell, pattern with smooth sides, wrought iron sabot, Parrott time fuze has been replaced with a Confederate copper time fuze, Parrott rifle 2.9in.
This appears to be a Federal Parrott apparently captured by Confederates, there is no lathe dimple in the base and sabot is thick and pre rifled typical of the Parrott patterns. An attempt was made to insert a Confederate time fuze, but the thread count on the Confederate fuze is different than on the Parrott fuzes, consequently the fuze did not fit and it is screwed in only part of the way. Projectilemeasures: diameter 2.85in., height 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. (metal is light).
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), not listed.

A2333...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., height 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 8lbs. (metal is light). Metal surface is soft but stable, some weight loss, wrought iron sabot intact, Confederate copper time fuze is intact. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered Washington, North Carolina, 1865 campaign.


Artillery 5039 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides and milled sleeve, lead plug side loader, wrought iron sabot, rifling is not precast, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured, this is a late war "side loader". Read and Parrott collaborated before the war to develop a projectile employing the wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose. The shell was lathe turned, a weak bourrelet ring is left at the top and the bottom. The wrought iron sabot on this model was cast much thinner than earlier versions, consequently the rifling on this sabot was not precast. This pattern employed a side plug as a way to load iron balls into the shell. Conventional case shot shells were usually filled with soft matrix and lead balls, an auger would be used to drill through the lead balls and the matrix to create a void for the powder train. Because of a shortage of lead, theConfederates substituted iron balls. To drill through a mixture of matrixand iron balls would be difficult, so a sizing rod would be inserted through thefuze hole to reserve a void for the powder, the iron balls and matrix would beloaded through a side hole, once loaded the side hole would be plugged, thesizing rod would be removed, and the powder train would be filled. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper timefuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.4in. (excluding fuze), weight 10.3lb.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 248.

A1420...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.4in. (excluding fuze), weight 10.3lb. Wrought iron sabot is un-fired. Metal is solid, nose shows a smallcrack probably water damage, lead side plug intact, iron sabot intact, coppertime fuze intact.Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze.Recovered: Battle of Wilderness, Virginia, by Bill Ritenour.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.


Artillery 5040 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture Marshall Texas, bursting shell, short pattern with smooth sides, notched copper disc & band sabot, wood fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war, this was manufactured at Marshall Texas. This pattern likely was derived from Read's design but was apparentlydeveloped independently at the arsenal at Marshall Texas. The copper sabotis very thin, and is a disc with 5 notches, integral with a brass band. The disc portion is held onto a thin knob on the base of the shell, threenotches were cut into the the outer band to allow flame to pass. Thesmooth body is also shorter than that used by Read and is also used on a similarpattern derived from Mullane. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7.75in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.4lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 195.

A0642...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7.75in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.4lbs. Copper band sabot with notches is intact. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Provencal, Louisiana.

A2331...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7.75in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.4lbs. Copper sabot is fired and partial. Wood fuze is partial. Metal solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Tyler, Texas.


Artillery 5041 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, copper ring sabot thin cast and not pre-rifled, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexiblethan the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thin and not milled and not pre-rifled. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered,the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered intoplace. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in., weight 9.5lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A2194...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in., weight 9.5lbs. Coppersabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from a Parrott type rifle. Wood fuzemissing. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze holeexposing empty cavity. Recovered: Kennesaw, Georgia.


Artillery 5042 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, copper ring sabot thick cast pre-rifled and milled, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexiblethan the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick with pre-rifling, three lands and grooves for a Parrott type rifle, interior of sabot was milled to a thin edge. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in., weight 9.5lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A2409...
Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 8.5in., weight 9.5lbs. Copper sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from a Parrott type rifle. Wood shipping plug intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the side. Recovered: Kennesaw, Georgia.

A2450...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.75in., weight 9lbs. Copper sabot shows three lands and grooves, fired from a Parrott type rifle, fired sabot intact with significant base chip. Wood fuze missing. Metal is solid with some pitting. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty cavity. Recovered: Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5043 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides milled sleeve, copper ring sabot thick cast pre-rifled and milled, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during thewar. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose . The shell was lathe turned, a slightly deeper cut was made at the top and the bottom leaving the impression of a "sleeve" the depth and dimension will vary considerably and is likely the result of operator variation in the finishing process. Copper ring sabot istapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base,ring was cast thick with pre-rifling, three lands and grooves for a Parrott typerifle, interior of sabot was milled to a thin edge. Fuze hole is smooth andtapered, to take a wood time fuze. Projectile measures: diameter 2.83in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.7lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 248.

A0318...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.83in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.7lbs. Copper sabot shows 3 lands & grooves. Wood time fuze is partial. Metal is moderately pitted, cleaned and stable. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Atlanta campaign.


Artillery 5044 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, copper ring sabot thick cast pre-rifled and milled, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 2.9in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose. Copper ring sabot istapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base,ring was cast thick with pre-rifling, three lands and grooves for a Parrott typerifle, interior of sabot was milled to a thin edge. This long pattern has smooth sides. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight8.8lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 243.

A0076...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.85in., length 8.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 8.8lbs. Copper ring sabot is fired, showing three lands & grooves, base is chipped. Copper time fuze intact. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Third Battle of Winchester, Virginia by Harry Ridgeway, 1960's.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia.

A2898...

Projectile measures:diameter 2.85in., length 8.75in. (excluding the fuze), weight 9.4lbs. Thick copper ring sabot is unfired andnot milled. Metal strong with some pitting, Confederate brass time fuze intact,unfired copper sabot intact.Projectile is disarmed, drill hole on the side and through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered:Richmond Petersburg, Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5045 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with smooth tapered sides, copper ring sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thin and not milled. This short pattern has smooth sidesand is tapered the entire length. maximum diameter is at the sabot andthe shell gets thinner as it rises to the nose. This unusualfeature may have been an attempt to minimize milling of the shell body,but it is doubtful this would have nested properly in a cannon and thislikely explains the limited use made of this pattern. Fuze hole is smooth and tapered, to take a wood time fuze. Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 7.4in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.4lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 256.

A0595...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.96in., length 7.4in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.4lbs. Sabot is unfired. Wood fuze missing, shell appears to be filled with concrete. Projectile was recovered as part of a cache used as yard ornamentation in Camden SC, these were imbedded in a brick wall and most were filled with concrete.


Artillery 5051 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourreleted rings, copper ring sabot cast thick and milled, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war, employing Read's design. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. Read developed this copperring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot istapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base,ring was cast thick, then milled to a thin edge at the bottom. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg.41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.0in. fired sabot, weight 7lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 257.

A0083...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.5lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Spotsylvania County, Virginia.

A1539...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.0in. fired sabot, weight 7lbs. Copper sabot intact, this example may not have been fired. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Atlanta Georgia campaign.

A1540...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7.0in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.6lb. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Copper time fuze intact, shows dings from impact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Atlanta Georgia campaign.

A2238...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95 in., length 7.25 in (excluding the fuze), weight 8 lbs. Copper sabot shows twelve lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2239...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95 in., length 7.25 in (excluding thefuze), weight 8 lbs. Copper sabot shows 12 lands and grooves, fired from aConfederate rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the timefuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2439...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze),weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, firedfrom a Confederate rifle, fired sabot is intact with significant basechip but sabot was not thrown. Copper time fuze is intact. Metal is solid with light to moderatepitting. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper sectionof the time fuze. Recovered: shell was fired from Bloody Angle,Spotsylvania, Virginia, found on private property in 1977.

A2442...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze),weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, firedfrom a Confederate rifle. Copper time fuze intact.Metal is solid with some pitting. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the timefuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.

A2452...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 6.75in. (excluding thefuze, fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows sevenlands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Copper timefuze intact Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill holethrough the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Cold Harbor,Virginia.

A2480...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.0in. (excluding thefuze, fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows sevenlands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Copper time fuzeintact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill holethrough the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: North AnnaRiver, Virginia.

A2481...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.0in. (excluding the fuze,fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows sevenlands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle.Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile isdisarmed bydrill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Yellow Tavern,Virginia (1864 battle Jeb Stuart was killed).

A2482...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding thefuze, fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows sevenlands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Copper time fuzeintact. Metal is solid,. Projectile is disarmed by drill holethrough the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: RichmondPetersburg, Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5052 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper ring thick sabot and milled, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war> following John Read's design. The sabot system utilized was a copper ring sabot, more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, then milled to a thin edge at the bottom. This pattern utilized two bourreletrings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze, fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 257.

A1538...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze, fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs. Fired sabot is intact showing 7 lands and grooves. Wood time fuze is partial. Metal quality is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg, Virginia campaign.

A2336...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze, fired sabot is compressed), weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Wood time fuze missing. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Fredericksburg, Virginia.


Artillery 5053 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper ring thin sabot not milled, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war following John Read's design. The sabot system utilized was a copper ring sabot, more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was thin cast, and was generally not milled or was lightly milled. This pattern utilized two bourreletrings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg.41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.0in. fired sabot, weight 7lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George , Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 257.

A1891...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.0in. fired sabot, weight 7lbs. Thin sabot is unfired, but there is an area of damage. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.

A1892...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.0in. fired sabot, weight 7lbs., not verified. Fired sabot intact showing 7 lands and grooves and a significant base chip showing the violence of firing. Copper time fuze is intact. Metal quality is good. Shell is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Atlanta Georgia campaign.

A2108...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.0in. fired sabot, weight 7lbs. Thin sabot is fired showing 7 lands and grooves, fired from Ordnance rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Chancellorsville, Virginia.

A3012..

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) unfired sabot, 7.25in. fired sabot, weight 8lbs. Thin sabot is not fired. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5054 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper ring thin sabot not milled, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war following John Read's design. The sabot system utilized was a copper ring sabot, more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was thin cast, and was generally not milled or was lightly milled. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. unfired sabot, 7.0 in fired sabot, weight 7lbs , (typical).
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 257 .

A1104...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in.unfired sabot, 7.0 in fired sabot, weight 7lbs, (typical), not verified. Fired copper sabot intact shows 7 lands & grooves. Part of wooden fuze is present, small area missing from nose. Metal solid. Shell is disarmed, drill hole through paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Bentonville, North Carolina.

A1541...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in.unfired sabot, 7.0 in fired sabot, weight 7lbs, (typical). Fired sabot is intact, rifling is weak. Wood time fuze is partial. Metal quality solid with some areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg Virginia campaign.

A1890...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.9lb. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Wood time fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Cold Harbor, Virginia.

A1893...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in.unfired sabot, 7.0 in fired sabot, weight 7lbs, (typical), not verified. Sabot is fired, rifling is weak. Wood time fuze is mising. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Cold Harbor, Virginia.

A2335...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in., weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle. Wood time fuze missing. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered Fredericksburg, Virginia.

A2454...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in., weight 7lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle, rifling is weak bore was worn but rifling is definite. Wood time fuze is partial. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Cold Harbor, Virginia.

A2914...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.9lb. Copper ring sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from 3in. rifle. Wood fuze intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered Williamsport, Maryland, by Dan Keim.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia


Artillery 5055 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, Houston Texas, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, notched copper ring sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war at Houston Texas. Apparently Read's design was employed and modified. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. This variant of Read's copper sabot is very thick but was not milled out on the inside, the top is milled out to form a safety or lubricating groove, three notches were cut into the sabot to allow flame to pass. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7. 5in. weight 7lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 260.

A2330...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.5in. weight 7lbs. Thick copper sabot is unfired. Wood fuze is missing. Metal is solid with moderate pitting, these were discovered then stacked outside in the weather for an extended period. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Houston Texas by J. O. Schmidt.


Artillery 5056 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, tall copper ring sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war employing Read's design. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. The width of the bourrelet rings varies considerably, presumably this is operator variance in the finishing process. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose areusually prominent. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base. Copper ring sabot was milled inside to a bevel, then a significant safety groove was milled into the top of the sabot exterior and is sometimes cut into the bottom bourrelet ring , this sabot is typically much longer than the other Reads. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in.(excluding fuze), weight 7.7lb.
Ref: Dickey & George , Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 265
.

A1536...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.7lb. Copper sabot unfired. Wood fuze was never installed. Metal is very strong, showing original casting and machining details. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: cache at Camden, South Carolina.

A1542...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 7.7lb. Copper sabot unfired. Wood fuze was never installed. Metal is very strong, showing original casting and machining details. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: cache at Camden, South Carolina.


Artillery 5057 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, lead plug side loader above the bourrelet ring, copper ring sabot, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war employing Read's design. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, then milled slightly leaving a bevel at the bottom. This pattern employed a side plug as a way to load iron balls into the shell. Conventional case shot shells were usually filled with soft matrix and lead balls, an auger would be used to drill through the lead balls and the matrix to create a void for the powder train. Because of a shortage of lead, theConfederates substituted iron balls. To drill through a mixture of matrixand iron balls would be difficult, so a sizing rod would be inserted through thefuze hole to reserve a void for the powder, the iron balls and matrix would beloaded through a side hole, once loaded the side hole would be plugged, thesizing rod would be removed, and the powder train would be filled. This one used a lead side-plug located above the bourrelet ring. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze), weight 8lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 258.

A2147...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze), weight 8lbs. Copper sabot shows seven lands and grooves, fired from a Confederate rifle, and is partial. Copper time fuze and lead side plug are intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Spotsylvania County, Virginia.


Artillery 5058 Read 2.9in to 3.0in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, lead plug side loader below the bourrelet ring, copper ring sabot, copper time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war employing Read's design. This pattern utilized two bourreletrings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. A lathe dimple in the base, and a casting sprue on the nose are usually prominent. Read developed this copper ring sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot, sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, then milled slightly leaving a bevel at the bottom. Sabot on this pattern is milled, and three verticalslots were cut into the sabot. This pattern employed a side plug as a way to load iron balls into the shell. Conventional case shot shells were usually filled with soft matrix and lead balls,an auger would be used to drill through the lead balls and the matrix to createa void for the powder train. Because of a shortage of lead, theConfederates substituted iron balls. To drill through a mixture of matrixand iron balls would be difficult, so a sizing rod would be inserted through thefuze hole to reserve a void for the powder, the iron balls and matrix would beloaded through a side hole, once loaded the side hole would be plugged, thesizing rod would be removed, and the powder train would be filled. This one used a lead side-plug located below the bourrelet ring, which is unusual. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41, fuze is seated in a recess in the fuze hole, it does not sit on top of the shell as is typical for this type of fuze. Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding the fuze) , weight 9lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George , Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 258.

A2640...

Projectile measures: diameter 2.95in., length 7.25in. (excluding thefuze), weight 9lbs. Fired sabot shows rifling. Copper time fuze intact. Metal solid. Shell disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.


Rifled artillery projectile,Confederate manufacture, 2.9in. or 3in., fragments

A0200.13...Rifled artillery projectile,Confederate manufacture, 2.9in. or 3in., fragments.
These bases are from Confederate Read projectiles. All have lathe dimple. Iron sabot are typically 2.9inch. and fired from three groove 10 pounder. Most copper sabots are 3 in, and show 7 grooves. Most Confederate manufactured projectiles have a lathe dimple in the center. Breaking sabots was a problem, and some of these sabots the entire copper sabot seperated ferom the casting, others broke into segments. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia 1864 campaign, Third Battle of Winchester and Battle of Cedar Creek, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0200.14...Rifled artillery projectile,Confederate manufacture, 2.9in. or 3in., fragments
These are all 2.9in. or 3in. Confederate manufactutred. The bourrelet ring is only found on Confederate manufacture and is typically from Read design, although it also shows up on some other designs. These are nose sections, some are wood fuzed and some are threaded, the depth of the threads varies considerably. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia 1864 campaign, Third Battle of Winchester and Battle of Cedar Creek, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A0200.24...Rifled artillery projectile,Confederate manufacture, 2.9in. or 3in., fragments
This fragment is nose section from Confederate bourreleted ringed side loader, threads from both the main fuze hole and side plug are visible. Recovered: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia 1864 campaign, Third Battle of Winchester and Battle of Cedar Creek, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia


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