Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, 3.67in.
Artillery 5110 Read 3.67in.


This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.


Weapons used:
Parrott 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Caliber of the gun is 3.67in., 5 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 3.62 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in. Caliber of the gun is 3.67in., 5 grooves, (apparently copied from Federal 20 pounder), projectile diameter should measure 3.62 in. approximately, variations will be noted.
Rifled 6 pounder gun, 3.67in. Caliber of the gun is 3.67in., 7 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 3.62in. approximately, variations will be noted.


Artillery 5111 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, pointed nose, wrought iron sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. Although the wrought iron sabot was cast much thinner than the Federal counterpart, it still did not take the rifling satisfactorily, five lands and grooves were precast into this sabot. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered intoplace. Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 280.

A1490...
A1490.jpg (11772 bytes) A1490B.jpg (16182 bytes) A1490C.jpg (20419 bytes) A1490D.jpg (31023 bytes)
Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs. Shell is marked: "Z", meaning unknown. Sabot intact. Wood fuze missing. Metal is solid, with light pitting, shell has not been cleaned. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: Gettysburg campaign, not confirmed.

A2159...
Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length10.25in., weight 18lbs. Sabot intact. Wood fuze missing. Metalis solid. Projectile is disarmed by open fuze hole exposing empty cavity. Recovered: not known.


Artillery 5112 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with< smooth sidestapered nose, wrought iron sabot pre-cast rifling, copper time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe , nose on this pattern is relatively tapered. Although the wrought iron sabot was cast much thinner than the Federal counterpart, it still did not take the rifling satisfactorily, five lands and grooves were precast into this sabot . Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41 . Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 280.

A0089...

Projectile measures: diameter3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs. Projectile is marked with "H" onsmooth side below the nose taper, presumably this is an arsenal mark. Sabot is intact with five pre-rifled lands and grooves, intended forfiring from a Parrott type rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole throughthe paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Virginia1969 per Mac Mason artwork (now lost to restoration).
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia

A1903...

Projectile measures: diameter3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs. Sabot is intact with fivepre-rifled lands and grooves, intended for firing from a Parrott type rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile isdisarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Atlanta, Georgia 1864 campaign.

A2325...

Projectile measures: diameter3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs. Sabot is intact with fivepre-rifled lands and grooves, intended for firing from a Parrott type rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid with areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.

A2743...

Projectile measures: diameter3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 18lbs. Sabot is intact with fivepre-rifled lands and grooves, intended for firing from a Parrott typerifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the timefuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5113 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, blunt nose, wrought iron sabot pre-cast rifling, copper time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured following the prewar invention of Robert Parrott and John Read working together. The sabot system utilized was a wrought iron ring, the Confederate version developed by Read is generally thinner than the Federal pattern. Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe, nose on this pattern is bluntly rounded. Although the wrought iron sabot was cast much thinner than the Federal counterpart, it still did not take the rifling satisfactorily, five lands and grooves were precast into this sabot. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 3.6in., length 9.5in. (excluding fuze), weight16.6lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 281.

A0091...

Projectile measures: diameter 3.6in., length 9.5in. (excluding fuze),weight 16.6lbs. Sabot is intact with five pre-rifled lands andgrooves, intended for firing from a Parrott type rifle. Coppertime fuze intact. Metal quality is solid. Projectile isdisarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Petersburg Virginia, Oct 8 1966, by Mac Mason, thisshell was photographed in Mason book pg. 115 upper right. UnfortunatelyMr. Masons famous artwork was lost when shell was restored.

A2441...

Projectile measures diameter 3.62in., length 9.75in., weight 17lbs. Sabot is intact with five pre-rifled lands and grooves, intended forfiring from a Parrott type rifle. Copper time fuze intact. Metal quality is solid with areas of pitting. Projectile isdisarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond Petersburg, Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5114 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides milled sleeve, pointed nose, thick copper ring sabot not milled and not pre-rifled, wood time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexiblethan the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. The shell was lathe turned, a slightly deeper cut was made at the top and the bottom leaving the impression of a "sleeve" the depth and dimension will vary considerably and is likely the result of operator variation in the finishing process.Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, this model was not milled and not pre-rifled. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 16lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 284.

A0088...

Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 16lbs. Sabot is fired and spread to a larger diameter during firing but was toothick to take the rifling. Wood time fuze is partial. Metalis solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Grand Gulf, Mississippi.

A2096...

Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 16lbs. Sabot is not fired or was too thick to take the rifling. Wood time fuze ismissing. Metal is solid with areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed,open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.


Artillery 5115 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, tapered nose, copper ring sabot milled, copper time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in...
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe, nose on this pattern is bluntly rounded. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, then milled to a thin edge at the bottom. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. .Projectile measures diameter 3.63in., length 9.75in.(excluding fuze), weight 15lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 283.

A2234...
Projectile measures diameter 3.63in., length 9.75in.(excluding fuze), weight 15lbs. Sabot is not fired. Copper time fuze is intact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5116 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, tapered nose, copper ring sabot milled, wood time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe, nose on this pattern is bluntly rounded. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, then milled to a thin edge at the bottom. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, Jones Fuzes pg. 2, fuze hole is smooth and tapered,the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place. Projectile measures diameter 3.63in., length 9.75in.(excluding fuze), weight 14lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 283.

A2961...

Projectile measures diameter 3.63in., length 9.75in.(excluding fuze), weight 14lbs. Fired sabot sheared on firing and is partial. Wood time fuze is partial. Metal is solid with areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed by drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: Richmond, Petersburg, Virginia campaign, not confirmed.


Artillery 5117 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides milled sleeve, pointed nose, thick copper ring sabot not milled and not pre-rifled, copper time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexiblethan the earlier wrought iron sabot. A smooth sided long shell was produced by both sides, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe. The shell was lathe turned, a slightly deeper cut was made at the top and the bottom leaving the impression of a "sleeve" the depth and dimension will vary considerably and is likely the result of operator variation in the finishing process. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, this model was not milled and not pre-rifled. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures: diameter 3.63in., length 10.25in., weight 16lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 284.

A0090...

Projectile measures: diameter 3.6in.,length 10.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 15.7lbs. Sabot is notfired or was too thick to take the rifling. Copper time fuze isintact. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed, open fuze holeexposes empty interior. Recovered: Virginia campaign.


Artillery 5118 Read 3.67in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with smooth sides, tapered nose, copper ring sabot, thick pre-rifled, copper time fuze, Confederate 20 pounder rifle, 3.67in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war. Read developed this copper sabot, it was more flexible than the earlier wrought iron sabot Both sides produced a smooth sided long shell, this Confederate version is distinguished by a lathe dimple in the base, a casting sprue on the nose, and the smooth sides were finished by turning on a lathe, nose on this pattern is relatively pointed. Copper ring sabot is tapered at the top and seated in a deep groove well inside of the iron base, ring was cast thick, five lands and grooves were precast into this sabot. Fuze employed was a Confederate copper time fuze, two spanner holes, Jones pg. 41. Projectile measures diameter 3.63in., length 9.75in.(excluding fuze), weight 18lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 283.

A2665...

Projectile measures diameter 3.63in., length 9.75in.(excluding fuze), weight 18lbs. Fired sabot intact with 5 lands & grooves. Copper time fuze intact. Metal is solid, areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed, drill hole through the paper section of the time fuze. Recovered: not known.


Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, 3.67in., fragments

A0200.22...Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, 3.67in., fragments
These fragments from 20 pounder oprojectiles were recovered from Milroy's main fort at Second Battle of Winchester. Milroy occupied Winchester, during winter 1863, and constructed an extensive hill top fortifications around Winchester, three batteries were configured in triangle shape, allowing fire or cross fire to be directed against an attack from any direction. The Confederates occupied the western battery and turned the guns from this battery onto Milroy's main battery. Rockbridge Artillery occuppied the captured battery and brought in 20 pounders. It is believed that the only use of 20 pounders in this engagement was from the Rockbridge Artillery, and so these fragments recovered from the target, Milroy's main battery are believed to have been fired by the Rockbridge Artillery. Recovered: Second Battle of Winchester Milroys camp, by Harry Ridgeway.
Ridgeway collection, Old Court House Civil War Museum, Winchester, Virginia


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