Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, 3in.
Artillery 5820 Tennessee 3in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.


Weapons used:
Confederate rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 7 grooves, (apparently copied from Federal 3 in. Ordnance rifle), projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be found.
Confederate rifle, 3.in. Caliber of the gun is 3.0in., 12 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 2.94 in. approximately, variations will be found.


Artillery 5821 Tennessee 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed long nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively long and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 9.0 in. overall, body only 7.0in. excluding bolt & studs, weight 7.0lb.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1165...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed long nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively long and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 9.0 in. overall, body only 7.0in. excluding bolt & studs, weight 7.0lb. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact. Wood fuze is partial, smooth tapered hole. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: Port Hudson, Louisiana.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1283...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed long nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively long and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 9.0 in. overall, body only 7.0in. excluding bolt & studs, weight 7.0lb. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is partial, smooth tapered hole. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: Fredericksburg, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1517...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed long nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively long and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 9.0 in. overall, body only 7.0in. excluding bolt & studs, weight 6lb. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is partial, smooth tapered hole. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1849...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed long nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively long and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 9.0 in. overall, body only 7.0in. excluding bolt & studs, weight 6lb. Sabot is fired showing 3 lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is partial, smooth tapered hole. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A2269...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed long nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze. The nose on this pattern is relatively long and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.86in., length 9.0 in. overall, body only 7.0in. excluding bolt & studs, weight 7.0lb. Note this shell actually measures small enough to be 2.9in caliber, however, this is likely the result of excess milling. Sabot is fired showing 3 weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Wood fuze is partial, smooth tapered hole. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.


Artillery 5822 Tennessee 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell flush mounted with short bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a short bolt apparently secured the copper disc flush mounted and eliminated the wood dowel used in earlier versions. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2. 94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight 6lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A0353...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell flush mounted with short bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a short bolt apparently secured the copper disc flush mounted and eliminated the wood dowel used in earlier versions. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2. 94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight 6.8lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Wood fuze is partial. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A2009...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell flush mounted with short bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a short bolt apparently secured the copper disc flush mounted and eliminated the wood dowel used in earlier versions. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze. The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall, weight 6lbs. Sabot is fired showing rifling, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is intact. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.


Artillery 5823 Tennessee 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight 6lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A0062...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight 6.6lbs. Sabot is fired showing 7 lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Spotsylvania, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1096...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight not determined. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Wood fuze is intact. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: Spotsylvania, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1178...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight not determined. Sabot is fired showing 7 lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is partial. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Antietam Maryland campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A1850...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze . The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight not determined. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Spotsylvania, Virginia.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.

A2542...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze. The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically strong. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., length 8in. overall (6.5in. exclude bolt & studs), weight 6lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact but shows distortion from firing. Wood fuze is intact, probably is a replacement. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: Virginia campaign.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 203.


Artillery 5824 Tennessee 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper grooved disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, sabot is notched for flame grooves, brass drive in time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze. The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a brass drive in time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the metal fuze could be hammered into a smooth hole, the top of the fuze is beveled to a smaller hole at the top, Jones Fuzes pg. 47, upper left. Sabot was notched with three cuts for flame grooves. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., overall length 8.0in., shell body only length 6.75in., weight 6.8lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 207.

A0588...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, pattern with, bourreleted ringed short nose, copper grooved disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and long bolt, sabot is notched for flame grooves, brass drive in time fuze, Confederate rifle, 3 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a long bolt apparently secured the copper disc along with a wood dowel. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Length of nose varies considerably and is partly the result of how much the nose was milled to accommodate the wood fuze. The nose on this pattern is relatively short and the bourrelet rings are typically weak. Fuze employed was a brass drive in time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the metal fuze could be hammered into a smooth hole, the top of the fuze is beveled to a smaller hole at the top, Jones Fuzes pg. 47, upper left. Sabot was notched with three cuts for flame grooves. Projectile measures: diameter 2.94in., overall length 8.0in., shell body only length 6.75in., weight 6.8lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Brass drive in fuze is intact. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 207.


Artillery 5825 Tennessee 3in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture at Marshall Texas, bursting shell, pattern with, four studs, copper disc sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle 3 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and is believed to have been developed at the Marshall Texas arsenal using the Tennessee design with significant modification. This sabot pattern, employed four short studs and a center stud, the sabot was cast onto the shell, and was not manufactured and separately assembled as was done with the other Tennessee patterns. If the sabot is in place, it will show solid brass across the entire bottom and is distinguished from the similar "Read" pattern that featured a post. Notches were cut from the sabot to serve as flame grooves.. Sides of the shell are smooth, and are similar to other smooth sided shells produced at Marshall and are shorter than the eastern smooth sided Read shells. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2. 9in., length 7.75in . overall , weight 7lbs.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 213, as to pattern, not listed in 3in. caliber.

A1851...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture at Marshall Texas, bursting shell, pattern with, four studs, copper disc sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle 3 in.
A1851.jpg (14894 bytes) A1851B.jpg (11547 bytes) A1851C.jpg (13566 bytes) A1851D.jpg (21821 bytes) Projectile was Confederate manufactured and is believed to have been developed at the Marshall Texas arsenal using the Tennessee design with significant modification. This sabot pattern, employed four short studs and a center stud, the sabot was cast onto the shell, and was not manufactured and separately assembled as was done with the other Tennessee patterns. If the sabot is in place, it will show solid brass across the entire bottom and is distinguished from the similar "Read" pattern that featured a post. Notches were cut from the sabot to serve as flame grooves.. Sides of the shell are smooth, and are similar to other smooth sided shells produced at Marshall and are shorter than the eastern smooth sided Read shells. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2. 9in., length 7.75in. overall, weight not determined. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Wood fuze is partial. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 213, as to pattern, not listed in 3in. caliber.

A2384...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture at Marshall Texas, bursting shell, pattern with, four studs, copper disc sabot, wood time fuze, Confederate rifle 3 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and is believed to have been developed at the Marshall Texas arsenal using the Tennessee design with significant modification. This sabot pattern, employed four short studs and a center stud, the sabot was cast onto the shell, and was not manufactured and separately assembled as was done with the other Tennessee patterns. If the sabot is in place, it will show solid brass across the entire bottom and is distinguished from the similar "Read" pattern that featured a post. Notches were cut from the sabot to serve as flame grooves.. Sides of the shell are smooth, and are similar to other smooth sided shells produced at Marshall and are shorter than the eastern smooth sided Read shells. Fuze employed was a wood time fuze, fuze hole is smooth and tapered, the simple to make fuze could easily be hammered into place, Jones Fuzes pg. 2. Projectile measures: diameter 2.9in., length 7.75in. overall, weight 7lbs. Sabot is fired showing distortion from firing and is intact. Wood fuze is partial, smooth tapered hole. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through paper section of time fuze. Recovered: Louisiana.
Ref: Dickey & George, Field Artillery (1993 Edition), pg. 213, as to pattern, not listed in 3 in. caliber.


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