Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, 6.4in.
Artillery 5880 Tennessee 6.4in.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.


Weapons used:
Confederate rifled 32 pounder gun, 6.4in. Caliber of the gun is 6.4in., 5 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 6.3in. approximately, variations will be found.
Confederate rifled 32 pounder gun, 6.4in. Caliber of the gun is 6.4in., 10 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 6.3in. approximately, variations will be found.
Confederate rifled 32 pounder gun, 6.4in. Caliber of the gun is 6.4in., 13 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 6.3in. approximately, variations will be found.


Artillery 5881 Tennessee 6.4in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with round nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, rifled 32 pounder or Brooke rifle, 6.4in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is rounded, it was designed to be used against the Federal ironclads, but was probably judged ineffective, most bolts developed by the Confederacy employed flatter surfaces on top. This relatively short bolt was likely intended for the old 32 pounder smoothbores that had been banded and converted to rifled. Projectile measures: diameter 6.35in., length 11.4in., 10in. without sabot, weight 68lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 412 & 413.

A0817...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with round nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, rifled 32 pounder or Brooke rifle, 6.4in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the top is rounded, it was designed to be used against the Federal ironclads, but was probably judged ineffective, most bolts developed by the Confederacy employed flatter surfaces on top. This relatively short bolt was likely intended for the old 32 pounder smoothbores that had been banded and converted to rifled. Projectile measures: diameter 6.3in., length 10.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 59lbs. no sabot. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Metal is stable, projectile recovered from wet ground and has been treated. Projectile is disarmed: solid iron casting never had a cavity or bursting charge. Recovered: Charleston, South Carolina.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 412 & 413.

A2812...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with round nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, rifled 32 pounder or Brooke rifle, 6.4in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is rounded, it was designed to be used against the Federal ironclads, but was probably judged ineffective, most bolts developed by the Confederacy employed flatter surfaces on top. This relatively short bolt was likely intended for the old 32 pounder smoothbores that had been banded and converted to rifled. Projectile measures: diameter 6.35in., length 11.4in., 10in. without sabot, weight 51lbs., without sabot. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Metal is stable, projectile recovered from wet ground and has been treated. Projectile is disarmed: solid iron casting never had a cavity or bursting charge. Recovered: Charleston, South Carolina.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 412 & 413.


Artillery 5882 Tennessee 6.4in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, rifled 32 pounder or Brooke rifle, 6.4in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This relatively short bolt was likely intended for the old 32 pounder smoothbores that had been banded and converted to rifled. Projectile measures: diameter 6. 35in., length 9.25in., weight 65lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 415.

A2543...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, short pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, rifled 32 pounder or Brooke rifle, 6.4in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This relatively short bolt was likely intended for the old 32 pounder smoothbores that had been banded and converted to rifled. Projectile measures: diameter 6.35in., length 9.25in., weight 65lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Metal is stable, projectile recovered from wet ground and has been treated. Projectile is disarmed: solid iron casting never had a cavity or bursting charge. Recovered: Charleston, South Carolina.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 415.


Artillery 5885 Tennessee 6.4in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and flush mounted bolt, copper percussion fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a short bolt secured the copper disc flush mounted. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Fuze employed is Archer percussion fu ze , Jones pg. 56 top right . Projectile measures: diameter 6.2in., length 9.5in. body only, weight 50lbs, without sabot.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 418.

A0157...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the shell and flush mounted bolt, copper percussion fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type I, employed three long studs cast into the shell body fitted through the disc sabot, a short bolt secured the copper disc flush mounted. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Fuze employed is Archer percussion fu ze , Jones pg. 56 top right . Projectile measures: diameter 6.2in., length 9.5in. body only, weight 50lbs, without sabot. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Percussion fuze intact. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the bottom bolt hole. Recovered: James River Fort Virginia, by early digger Mac Mason.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 418.


Artillery 5886 Tennessee 6.4in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, rounded nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, threaded fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Shell is threaded for a fuze, probably Confederate percussion fu ze , Jones pg. 56 top right . Projectile measures: diameter 6.33in., length 9.75 in shell body only, length 11in. (overall with sabot), weight 57lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 420.

A0159...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, rounded nose, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, threaded fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. Performance of this sabot was unsatisfactory, typically the studs or the bolt would break on firing releasing or distorting the copper disc sabot. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, the casting is crude, and the width and depth of the rings also vary by the depth of the milling. Shell is threaded for a fuze, probably Confederate percussion fu ze , Jones pg. 56 top right . Projectile measures: diameter 6.33in., length 9.75 in shell body only, length 11in. (overall with sabot), weight 57lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Threaded fuze is missing. Metal is solid, minor areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. solid iron casting never had a cavity or bursting charge. Recovered: Virginia.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 420., actual example published.


Artillery 5887 Tennessee 6.4in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, copper percussion fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.3in., length 12.5in., weight 60lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429, example of this pattern but in 7in.caliber.

A0852...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, copper percussion fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.3in., length 11.25in. shell body without sabot, weight 61lb., sabot missing. Sabot separated on firing and is missing. Percussion fuze is missing. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: North Carolina defenses.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429, example of this pattern but in 7in.caliber....

A0897...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, copper percussion fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.3in., length 12.5in., weight 60lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Percussion fuze missing, outer bushing is present. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: North Carolina defenses.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429, example of this pattern but in 7in.caliber.

A1754...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, copper percussion fuze, rifled 32 pounder, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.3in., length 12.5in., weight 60lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Percussion fuze missing, outer bushing is present. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: North Carolina defenses.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429, example of this pattern but in 7in.caliber.


Artillery 5888 Tennessee 6.4in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bourreleted ringed long pattern, iron sabot, re-saboted by adding Mullane or Tennessee copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Confederate Navy watercap time fuze, Brooke rifle, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war probably employing John Read's design. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. The nose is relatively pointed, and the width of the bourrelet rings varies considerably, presumably this is operator variance in the finishing process. This shell started out as a long pattern Read, with iron sabot, Bell pg. 347. However the sabot performance was unsatisfactory, and a Tennessee copper disc sabot was installed on this shell by affixing to the bottom scabbed over the iron sabot. Presumably there are studs cast onto the sabot, (type II) and inserted into the shell body, the studs are not visible from the exterior, so it is assumed that there are studs. The sabot is secured with a center bolt, typical of other sabots of this type. Fuze is Confederate Navy watercap, Jones pg. 19. Projectile measures: diameter 6.36in., length 12.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 64lbs.
Ref: Bell Heavy Ordnance, pg. 421.

A0285...Rifled artillery projectile, Read design, Confederate manufacture, bourreleted ringed long pattern, iron sabot, re-saboted by adding Mullane or Tennessee copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Confederate Navy watercap time fuze, Brooke rifle, 6.4 in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured during the war probably employing John Read's design. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough. The nose is relatively pointed, and the width of the bourrelet rings varies considerably, presumably this is operator variance in the finishing process. This shell started out as a long pattern Read, with iron sabot, Bell pg. 347. However the sabot performance was unsatisfactory, and a Tennessee copper disc sabot was installed on this shell by affixing to the bottom scabbed over the iron sabot. Presumably there are studs cast onto the sabot, (type II) and inserted into the shell body, the studs are not visible from the exterior, so it is assumed that there are studs. The sabot is secured with a center bolt, typical of other sabots of this type. Fuze is Confederate Navy watercap, Jones pg. 19. Projectile measures: diameter 6.36in., length 12.5in. (excluding fuze), weight 64lbs. Both sabots are intact showing weak lands and grooves from firing and are intact. Confederate watercap fuze intact. Metal is solid, with areas of pitting. Projectile is disarmed: drill hole through the side. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Bell Heavy Ordnance, pg. 421., actual example published.


Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, fragments.

A0158...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, fragments.
Fragment of base, 6.4in., shows holes for Type II sabot, (studs protrude from the sabot rather than the shell.


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