Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War


Civil War Artillery
by Harry Ridgeway

Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, 7in.
Artillery 5890 Tennessee 7in.


This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Research Center...", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.
All projectiles listed have been disarmed.

Most information on this page is from:
Field Artillery Projectiles of the American Civil War, 1993 Edition. by Thomas S. Dickey and Peter C. George.
Civil War Heavy Explosive Ordnance, A Guide to Large Artillery Prjectiles, Torpedoes, and Mines, by Jack Bell.
Artillery Fuses of the Civil War, by Charles H. Jones.
Pictures are by the author, unless otherwise indicated.


Weapons used:
Brooke rifle, 7in. Caliber of the gun is 7.0in., 7 grooves, projectile diameter should measure 6.9in. approximately, variations will be found.


Artillery 5891 Tennessee bolt long pattern 7in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A0117...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2150...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2428...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2627...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2677...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2678...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2679...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, long pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This long bolt was the heaviest of the Confederate bolts and likely intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 14.25in., weight 123lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.


Artillery 5892 Tennessee bolt medium pattern 7in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, medium pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This median length bolt was intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in., weight 118lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2593...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, medium pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This median length bolt was intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in., weight 118lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2628...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, medium pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This median length bolt was intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in., weight 118lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2680...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, medium pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This median length bolt was intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in., weight 118lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2698...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, medium pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This median length bolt was intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in., weight 118lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.

A2729...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, solid bolt, medium pattern with blunt nose, bourrelet rings, copper disc cupped sabot with 3 studs in the sabot, Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , the top is only slightly rounded, this flat top was designed to deliver maximum impact against the Federal ironclads. This median length bolt was intended for the new rifled Brooke rifles. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in., weight 118lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Projectile is disarmed: casting is solid iron. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 425.


Artillery 5895 Tennessee short shell 7in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Archer percussion fuze , Confederate Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is short. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 55 or 56. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 56lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 428.

A2444...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, short pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Archer percussion fuze, Confederate Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, nose is pointed, this pattern is short. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze, Jones pg. 55 or 56. Projectile measures: diameter 6.9in., length 13.25in. (excluding fuze), weight 56lbs. Sabot is fired showing weak lands and grooves, and is intact. Percussion fuze intact. Metal is stable, projectile recovered from wet ground and has been treated. Projectile is disarmed, sabot bolt is removable and there is drill hole through the bolt hole into the interior. Recovered: Charleston, South Carolina, Long Island, this is the only area of known recovery of this pattern.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 428, this is the example published.


Artillery 5896 Tennessee long shell 7in.
Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Archer percussion fuze, Confederate Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.95in., length 16in., weight 100lbs.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429.

A0160...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Archer percussion fuze, Confederate Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.95in., length 16in., weight 100lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze has been removed and is missing. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429.

A1644...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Archer percussion fuze, Confederate Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough, nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze, Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.95in., length 16in., weight 100lbs. Sabot is not fired and intact. Percussion fuze is intact and is removable. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: James River, Virginia area, near the 1865 battle involving the CSS "Richmond" which after running aground, apparently discharged a number of these heavy shells to lighten up its load to escape the grounding.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429.

A2625...Rifled artillery projectile, Tennessee design, Confederate manufacture, bursting shell, long pattern with bourrelet rings, copper disc sabot with 3 studs in the sabot and flush mounted bolt, Archer percussion fuze, Confederate Brooke rifle, 7in.
Projectile was Confederate manufactured and was originally believed to have been developed by Mullane working with Read and others, however, updated research has not been able to confirm the existence of a man named Mullane. Period literature often refers to work as the "Tennessee" design, cup, or sabot, and is attributed to Captain Lardner Gibbon, although official recognition for his development was never granted. The sabot system utilized was a copper disc held in place by studs and secured with a center bolt, a manufacturing innovation allowing the parts made of different metals, copper and iron, to be prepared independent and assembled at the end. This sabot pattern, referred to as Type II, employed three studs cast into the sabot and fitted into holes cast into the shell body, secured by a bolt in the center. This pattern utilized two bourrelet rings, as a labor saving device, only the rings had to be accurately machined, the rest could be left rough , nose is pointed, this pattern is long. Fuze employed was the Archer percussion fuze , Jones pg. 62. Projectile measures: diameter 6.95in., length 16in., weight 95lbs. Sabot is fired showing 7 lands and grooves, distortion from firing, sabot bolt was weakened and separated from the shell. Percussion fuze is missing. Metal is solid. Projectile is disarmed: open fuze hole exposes empty interior. Recovered: not determined.
Ref: Bell, Heavy Ordnance, pg. 429.


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