Civil War Relicman,
Harry Ridgeway.

Winchester, Virginia USA (changed hands 70 times in the Civil War!).

http://relicman.com/.

Ridgeway Civil War Library.
Button.Backmark. blank southern manufacture.
blank or unmarked backs, southern wartime manufacture.

This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Library", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.

Most information on this page is from Tice or Albert books, the pictures are generally from buttons analyzed by the author.


Many of the "local" buttons produced in the many shops of the south employed backs that were unmarked. There are many distinct variations of the unmarked backs and the details of construction will offer clues as to their origins.

blank southern manufacture.100, (22mm).
Backmark: blank back, sturdy cast button with deep well, shank was integral cast, then drilled, unknown maker, (blank southern manufacture.100). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5758. Confederate general service button, "CSA", one part cast, Confederate wartime manufacture, (22mm).

Reference: Albert CS86A, Tice CSG210A1.


blank southern manufacture.110, (22mm to 23mm, edges were milled, measurements vary)
Backmark: blank back, sturdy cast button with deep well, shank was integral cast and sits on a post, likely manufactured in Georgia by multiple producers, (blank southern manufacture.110). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5394. Confederate infantry button, block "I" with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, one piece cast brass or copper, concave back with shank on a pedestal, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS184A, Tice CSI275A1.


blank southern manufacture.120, (22 to 23mm).
Backmark: blank back one piece white metal casting, integral shank with moldseam running through the back and the shank, relatively shallow concave back, probably Georgia manufacture, (blank southern manufacture.120). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188, [Plate C3, 2].

B5652. Confederate infantry button, narrow block "I" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, one piece cast white metal, concave back with integral shank and a mold seam, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS185B, Tice CSI278B1.


blank southern manufacture.130, (22 to 23mm).
Backmark: blank back one piece white metal casting, integral shank with moldseam running through the back and the shank, back is concave with flat areaaround the shank, southern maker unknown, (blank southern manufacture.130). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5183. Confederate infantry button, wide block "I" with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, one piece cast white metal, concave back with integral shank and a mold seam, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS185A, Tice CSI278A1.


blank southern manufacture.131, (20mm to 21mm).
Backmark: blank back one piece white metal casting, integral shank with mold seam running through the back and the shank, back is slightly concave, field cast GMI buttons were probably made by the cadets in 1864, (blank southern manufacture.131). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5795. Georgia cadet button, Georgia Military Institute, white metal field cast, (21mm).

Reference: Albert SU128, Tice GAS290A1.
Old Court House Civil War Museum collection.


blank southern manufacture.132, (14mm to 18mm).
Backmark: blank back one piece white metal casting, integral shank with mold;seam running through the back and the shank, back is more or less flat, field cast buttons were probably made by blacksmiths or the soldiers themselves, (blank southern manufacture.132). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B1657. South Carolina button, state seal with palmetto tree, white metal field cast, southern wartime manufacture, (16mm)

Reference: Albert SC22, Tice SC284.


blank southern manufacture.140, (17 to 22mm).
Backmark: blank, one part cast button, low convex, back may show marks from milling, non footed shank is brazed, small North Carolina manufacturer, (blank southern manufacture.140). Collectors disagree as to whether this pattern is cast or die stamped. The author's opinion is that casting irregularities are noted in some backs that were not milled, and even though brazing to a casting is thought to have been difficult, it appears this producer found a way to accomplish it, this may also explain why production of this pattern was so limited. Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B2712. North Carolina button, sunburst with 8 symmetrical rays, "NC" encircled on a stipled background, sunrays on a plain background without border, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, one part cast with brazed non footed shank, (22.3mm)

Recovered: eastern North Carolina. Reference: Albert NC13, Tice NC230A1.

B4253. North Carolina button, sunburst with 8 symmetrical rays, "N.C" encircled on a lined background, sunrays on a stipled background with border, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, one part cast with brazed nonfooted shank, (21mm)

Recovered: eastern North Carolina. Reference: Albert NC14, Tice NC233A1.

B6061. North Carolina button, sunburst with 8 symmetrical rays, "N.C" encircled on a lined background, sunrays on a stipled background with border, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, one part cast with brazed nonfooted shank, (16.8mm)

Recovered: Greensboro, North Carolina.. Reference: Albert NC14, Tice NC233Am1.

B0076. North Carolina regimental button, NORTH CAROLINA with pine tree, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, one part cast with brazed non footed shank, (21mm)

Reference: Albert NC12, Tice NC251A1.

B4262. North Carolina cadet button, Hillsborough Military Academy, Hillsborough, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, one part cast with brazed nonfooted shank, (20.9mm)
Button depicts star with sunburst, surounded with "H M A / (star) N C (star)" This was a small cadet school located in Hillsborough North Carolina, established 1859 and did not operate after the Civil War. Button is southern wartime manufacture following the North Carolina cast sunburst patterns, and is the only NC school button made in the south during the war. This button has been attributed to Henderson Male Academy, Henderson, North Carolina., by both Albert and Tice. However it is the author's opinion that this is more likely to have been a wartime version of buttons manufactured for Hillsborough. Reasoning is that this school was established before the war, it is in eastern NC (Henderson is in western NC), these buttons have been found in eastern NC, the initials, inverted star and NC follow earlier patterns for this school, Hillsborough was a military school, Henderson was not, and the buttons appear to have been made early by the same maker who made the other cast sunburst buttons, probably Wilmington. Backmark: blank, one part cast button, low convex, back may show marks from milling, non footed shank is brazed, small North Carolina manufacturer, (blank southern manufacture140). Two part convex button, cadet coat size. Dug button, shank intact, some gilding, has a fragment of thread remaining. Recovered: North Carolina. Reference: Albert SU162, Tice NCS275A1.


blank southern manufacture.141, (17 to 22mm).
Backmark: blank, one part cast button, low convex, back may show marks from milling, footed shank is brazed, small North Carolina manufacturer, (blank southern manufacture.141). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6984. North Carolina button, sunburst with 8 symmetrical rays, "N.C" encircled on a lined background, sunrays on a stipled background with border, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, one part cast with brazed footed shank, (21mm)

Recovered: eastern North Carolina. Reference: Albert NC14, Tice NC233A1.
Collection of David Howe.


blank southern manufacture.150, (21mm).
Backmark: blank this is one piece cast button, button is flat, shank is integral, very small North Carolina manufacturer, (blank southern manufacture150).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

blank southern manufacture.160, (16mm).
Backmark: blank back, cast button with deep concave well, shank was integral cast, then drilled, Texas manufacture, (blank southern manufacture160).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B0800. Texas button,"CS" "muffin", brass, southern wartime manufacture, high convex, blank back, (16mm).

Reference: Albert TX26B, Tice TX256Bs1, brass.

B2128. Texas button,"CS" "muffin", white metal, southern wartime manufacture, high convex, blank back, (16mm).

Reference: Albert TX26B, Tice TX256Bs1, white metal.


blank southern manufacture.161, (20mm).
Backmark: blank back, cast button with deep concave well, shank was integral cast, then drilled, manufactured by T Miller, Houston Texas, (blank southern manufacture.161).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B0821. Texas button, Texas Cavalry, low convex one part cast brss, southern wartime manufacture, blank back, (20mm).

Reference: Albert CS143, Tice CSC280A2.

B3346. Texas button, Texas Artillery, low convex one part cast brass, southern wartime manufacture by T. Miller, blank back, (20mm).

Reference: Albert unlisted, Tice CSA280A2.

B0850. Texas button, Texas lone star with "CS", low convex one part cast brass, southern wartime manufacture by T. Miller, blank back, (20.5mm).

Reference: Reference: Albert TX27, Tice TX258A1.


blank southern manufacture.200, (24mm).
Backmark: blank back one piece white metal casting, brass wire shankimbedded in the casting, relativelyshallow concave back, unknown southern manufacture, (blank southern manufacture.200). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5670. Confederate infantry button, block "I" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, one piece cast white metal, concave back with copper shank, (24.2mm).

Reference: Albert CS185 not listed, Tice CSI281A1.


blank southern manufacture.210, (22 to 23mm).
Backmark: blank back, low convex one part stamped button, weak impression of die face will appear on back, nonfooted shank was spot brazed or soldered and is fragile and often missing, (blank southern manufacture210). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5654. North Carolina button, sunburst 8 point star on a stippled field, "NC", southern wartime manufacture, low convex one part, (23mm).
Reference: Albert NC15A, Tice NC239A1.

B5664. North Carolina button, sunburst 7 point star with point up on a stippled field, small letters "NC", southern wartime manufacture, low convex one piece, (23mm).
Reference: Albert NC16A, Tice NC242A1.

B4819. North Carolina button, sunburst 7 point star with point down on a stippledfield, medium letters "NC", southernwartime manufacture, low convex one piece, (23mm).
Reference: Albert NC16B, Tice NC242B1.


blank southern manufacture.220, (24mm)
Backmark: blank brass back, high convex one piece stamped button, weak impression of die face will appear on back, applied shank was spot brazed or soldered and will be weak or missing, (blank southern manufacture.220).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5779. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with upright wings, CS in shield, one piece low convex, Confederate wartime manufacture, (24.3mm).
Reference: Albert CS17, Tice CS233A1.


blank southern manufacture.300,(20.6mm).
Backmark: blank back, slight concave channel, likely the product of one of the New Orleans producers, (blank southern manufacture.300).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.
B6141. Confederate artillery button, block "A" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, plain copper back with copper shank, (23mm).
Reference: Albert CS117A, Tice CSA243A1, (copper back).

B5357. Texas button, flat star lined field with border, southern wartime manufacture, low convex, blank back, (20.6mm).
Reference: Albert CS31A, Tice CS268A2.

B3657. Mississippi button, flat star on lined field and "MISSISSIPPI", southern wartime manufacture, blank back, (22mm).
Reference: Albert MP5A, Tice MP230A1.


blank southern manufacture.301,(24mm).
Backmark: blank back, back is convex, "puffback", weak outer channel gives impression of rings, likely the product of one of the New Orleans producers, (blank southern manufacture.301).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5736. Louisiana button, state seal pelican side view, southern wartime manufacture, puffed back, (24.3mm).
Ref. Albert LA12, Tice LA266A1.


blank southern manufacture.301, (16mm).
Backmark: blank brass back, convex or "puffed" back, area around the rim is flat giving appearance to an outer ring, only made in small size, (blank southern manufacture.301.).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5679. Confederate officer or artillery button, CS over A, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank puff back, (16.6mm).
Reference: Albert CS88, Tice CSG213Am1.


Blank Southern 310, not used.

Blank Local. 311., (14mm).
Backmark: blank back, flat surface, crude construction, small size only, unknown "local" manufacture, (blank southern manufacture.311.). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5367. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with 10 stars on a lined field with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back, (14.2mm).
B5367A.JPG (31933 bytes) B5367B.JPG (29199 bytes) Reference: Albert not listed, Tice CS269As2.


blank southern manufacture.320, (19mm).
Backmark: blank back, flat surface, raised area around the shank, crude construction, unknown "local" manufacture, (blank southern manufacture.320). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5366. Confederate officer button, eagle facing left with no stars on a lined field, no border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back, (18.6mm).

Reference: Albert CS41B, Tice CS287A1.


blank southern manufacture.330, (22mm or 23mm approximate, these buttons are never round).
Backmark: blank copper back, ring of dots loosely spaced, two inner solid rings, no marks, back is crudely crimped, (blank southern manufacture.330). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6019. Confederate artillery button, block "A" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, copper back with ring of dots, and copper shank,(22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS117, Tice CSA243A1.

B6129. Confederate infantry button, block "I" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, plain copper back with dots, and copper shank, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS182A, Tice CSI243B1.


blank southern manufacture.340, (21mm).
Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually around the shank, copper wire wire shank was fitted only and not brazed and is usually loose, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture.340). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B3215. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with no stars on a plain field, no border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (21mm).
B3215.jpg (28589 bytes) B3215B.jpg (65753 bytes)Reference: Albert CS26B, Tice CS275A1.

B5306. Georgia button, state seal dome over three pillars, southern wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (21mm).
Reference: Albert GA11A, Tice GA230A1.

B7202...Louisiana state button, pelican with head to the right on a lined field, (die pattern G), southern wartime manufacture, blank with depressed channel, (21.7mm)
Button depicts a pelican feeding her young, intended for troops of Louisiana, southern wartime manufacture. This die pattern features the pelican with relatively straight drooped wings, four young are prominent in the foreground. Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually around the shank, copper wire wire shank was fitted only and not brazed and is usually loose, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture340). Two part convex button, coat size, crudely stamped and assembled southern "local". Dug button gilded, shank missing. Recovered: not known. Reference: Albert LA8, Tice LA249G1.

B5310. Louisiana button, state seal pelican with head to the right on a lined field, (die pattern F), southern wartime manufacture, blank with depressed channel, (21.8mm).
Reference: Albert LA8F, Tice LA249F1.

B0062. Mississippi Infantry button, star with "Mississippi" and "I", southern wartime manufacture, blank back, (21mm).
Reference: Albert MP8, Tice MP245A1.

B6164. Tennessee button, state seal symbols of agriculture and commerce, southern wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (21.3mm).
Reference: Albert TN4, Tice TN200B1.

B0089. Texas button, state seal, "Texas" around beveled star on plain field without border, southern wartime manufacture, high convex, blank back with channel, (21.1mm).
Reference: Albert TX24, Tice TX252A1.


blank southern manufacture.341, (22.5mm).
Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually around the shank, copper wire shank was fitted only or lightly brazed and is usually loose, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture.341). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B4654. Arkansas button, 2nd regiment CSA, southern wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (23mm).
Reference: AlbertAK6, TiceAK250A2.

B5585. North Carolina button, "standing shepherd", southern wartime manufacture, blank back with a channel, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert NC9, Tice NC216A1.


blank southern manufacture.341, (21.8mm).
Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually around the shank, copper or wire wire shank was fitted only and not brazed and is usually loose, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture.341). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5894. Mississippi button, beveled star on a plain field and "MISSISSIPPI", southern wartime manufacture, blank back with a channel, (21mm).
Reference: Albert MP6A, Tice MP235A1.


blank southern manufacture.341, (15mm).
Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually around the shank, copper or wire wire shank was fitted only and not brazed and is usually loose, small size button, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orlean, (blank southern manufacture.341). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5678. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with no stars on a lined field with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with narrow channel, (15.4mm).
Reference: Albert CS27Av, Tice CS278As1.


blank southern manufacture.350, (22.5mm).
Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually formed around the shank, iron wire shank, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture.350). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B3216...Confederate officer button, eagle facing left with 11 stars on a plain field with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with rounded channel and iron shank, (22.5mm)
Button depicts eagle with wings in relaxed position, intended for Confederate officers, southern wartime manufacture, a "local". This die pattern features an eagle facing left with wings in relaxed position, surrounded by 11 stars, the eagle grasps two arrows in the right talon and a wreath in the left talon, plain background. Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually formed around the shank, iron wire shank, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture350LargeCoat). Two part convex button, coat size, crude manufacture. Nondug button. Reference: Albert CS41, Tice CS284A1.


blank southern manufacture.350, (21mm).
Backmark: blank depressed rounded channel, narrow area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually formed around the shank, iron wire shank, likely the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture.350). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5636. Confederate infantry button, script "I", high convex without border, Confederate wartime manufacture, brass back with channel, iron shank, (21.1mm).
Reference: Albert CS188A, Tice CSI258A1.


blank southern manufacture.360, (22 to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed narrow channel imperfectly formed, wide flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, copper wire shank, likely manufactured by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.360). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188, [Plate C3, 13].

B5319. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain narrow channel without star, wide center, brass or copper wire shank, (22.5mm).

Reference: Albert NC8D, TiceNC210D2.

B5328. Virginia button, state seal Virtus slaying the tyrant, southern wartime manufacture, depressed channel without star, (22.4mm).

Reference: Albert VA22, Tice VA246A2.


blank southern manufacture.360, (15mm)
Backmark: blank depressed narrow channel imperfectly formed, flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, copper or brass wire shank, small size button, likely made by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.360). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188, [Plate C3, 13].

B5872. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain narrow channel without star, wide center, brass or copper wire shank, (15.2mm).
Reference: Albert NC8, Tice NC210As1.

B5873. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain narrow channel without star, wide center, brass or copper wire shank, (14.2mm).
Reference: Albert NC8, Tice NC210As1.

B5556. Virginia button, state seal Virtus slaying the tyrant, southern wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (14.8mm).
Reference: Albert VA21As, Tice VA244As1.


blank southern manufacture.370, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed narrow channel well formed, with star, wide flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, copper wire shank, likely made by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.370).
Note, the star is often weak and it is possible that the star became obliterated on some of the buttons deemed to be blank channel buttons. Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5416. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain narrow channel with star, wide center, brass or copper wire shank, (22.5mm).

Reference: Albert NC8C, TiceNC210C1.

B4446. Virginia button, state seal Virtus slaying the tyrant, southern wartime manufacture, blank channel with star, (22mm).
B4446.jpg (35238 bytes) B4446B.jpg (30120 bytes)Reference: Albert VA22,Tice VA246A2 (channel with star).


blank southern manufacture.380, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel imperfectly formed, narrow area around shank with variance of dimension, star in the channel is usually weak and may be obscured by corrosion, a worn die, or debris during stamping, iron wire shank, likely made by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.380). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5511. Confederate infantry button, script "I" surrounded by "CS" with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, brass back with wide channel and star, iron shank, (22.6mm).
Reference: Albert CS189A, Tice CSI261A1.

B6398. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain wide channel with star, narrow center, iron shank, (22mm).
Reference: Albert NC8D, TiceNC210D2.
Old Court House Civil War Museum collection.


blank southern manufacture.390, (22mm to 23mm)
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel imperfectly formed, narrow area around shank with variance of dimension, star in the channel is often weak and may be obscured by corrosion, a worn die or debris during stamping, shank is drilled from sheet copper, likely made by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.390). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6107. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain wide channel with star, narrow center, drilled shank made from copper sheet,(22.5mm).

Reference: Albert NC8C, TiceNC210C1.


blank southern manufacture.391, (22mm).
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel imperfectly formed, narrow area around shank with variance of dimension, star does not appear in the channel but may be obscured by corrosion, a worn die or debris during stamping, shank is drilled from sheet copper, likely made by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.391). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5843. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain wide channel without star, narrow center, drilled shank made from copper sheet,(22mm).

Reference: Albert NC8D, TiceNC210D2.


blank southern manufacture. 392, (22mm).
Backmark: blank depressed narrow channel, wide area around shank with variance of dimension, star does not appear in the channel shank is brass wire, concentric mill marks indicate that back may have been spun on a lathe, likely made by Wildt, (blank southern manufacture.392). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6089. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain narrow channel without star, wide center, brass or copper wire shank, (22.9mm).
Reference: Albert NC8D, TiceNC210.


blank southern manufacture.400,(22 to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel imperfectly formed, wide flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, with star, copper or brass wire shank, likely the product of either Wildt or Rouyer, (blank southern manufacture.400).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5916. Virginia button, state seal Virtus slaying the tyrant, southern wartime manufacture, blank wide channel with star, (22mm).
Reference: Albert VA22,Tice VA246A2.


blank southern manufacture.410, (22mm).
Backmark: blank depressed narrow channel well formed, wide area around shank with some variance of dimension, depressed well usually formed around the shank, copper or brass wire shank, possibly the product of C Rouyer, New Orleans, (blank southern manufacture.410). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188, [Plate C3, 15].

B5364. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with 12 stars on a plain field with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with narrow channel, (22.3mm).
B5364A.JPG (41744 bytes) B5364B.JPG (37698 bytes)Reference: Albert CS23A, Tice CS260A1.


blank southern manufacture.420, (22mm to 25mm).
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel well formed, narrow flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, copper or brass wire shank, likely the product of either Wildt or Rouyer, (blank southern manufacture.420). Note the same back seems to have been used on the buttons with false rims (25mm) and the more conventional two part officer buttons, 22mm, the difference is the size of the skin, not the size of the back. Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5361. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with 12 stars on a lined field, high convex, flat false rim, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with wide channel, (24.5mm).
B5361A.JPG (35317 bytes) B5361B.JPG (33190 bytes)Reference: Albert CS20A, Tice CS251A1.

B5515. Confederate officer button, eagle facing left with 13 stars on a lined field with flat false rim, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (25mm).
Reference: Albert CS42A, Tice CS290A1.

B5363. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with 12 stars on a lined field with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with wide channel, (22.3mm).
B5363A.JPG (30462 bytes) B5363B.JPG (28359 bytes)Reference: Albert CS22A, Tice CS257A1.

B5365. Confederate officer button, eagle facing right with 13 stars on a lined field with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (22.3mm).
B5365A.JPG (40103 bytes) B5365B.JPG (36786 bytes)Reference: Albert CS25A1, Tice CS266A2.

B3829. Confederate artillery button, high convex block "A" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, plain back with wide channel, (21.6mm.)
Reference: Albert CS116 to 117, not listed, Tice CSA241A1.


blank southern manufacture.421, (23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed channel, narrow flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, copper or brass wire shank, likely the product of either Wildt or Rouyer, (blank southern manufacture.421). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6016. Georgia button, state seal dome over three pillars, southern wartime manufacture, blank back with channel, (23.8mm).
Reference: Albert GA8, Tice GA221A2.
Old Court House Civil War Museum collection.


blank southern manufacture.430, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel imperfectly formed, wide flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, copper or brass wire shank, likely the product of either Wildt or Rouyer, blank southern manufacture.430). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B4445. Virginia button, state seal Virtus slaying the tyrant, southern wartime manufacture, wide blank channel, (22mm).
B4445.jpg (32045 bytes) B4445B.jpg (32261 bytes)Reference: Albert VA21, Tice VA244.


blank southern manufacture.440, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed narrow channel imperfectly formed, wide flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, iron shank, likely the product of either Wildt or Rouyer, (blank southern manufacture.440). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5175. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain narrow channel without star, wide center, iron shank, (22mm).
Reference: Albert NC8D, TiceNC210D2.


blank southern manufacture.441, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank depressed wide channel imperfectly formed, narrow flat area around shank with some variance of dimension, iron shank, likely the product of either Wildt or Rouyer, blank southern manufacture.441). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6431. North Carolina button, state seal ladies Liberty and Plenty, southern wartime manufacture, plain wide channel without star, narrow center, iron shank, (22mm).
Reference: Albert NC8D, TiceNC210D2.


blank southern manufacture.450, (23mm)
Backmark: deformed blank channel, possibly Steele & Johnson smuggled button, (blank southern manufacture.450). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B4449. Virginia button, state seal Virtus slaying the tyrant, officer staff, unknown manufacture, likely southern wartime manufacture, plain wide channel, (23mm).
B4449.jpg (35988 bytes) B4449B.jpg (30793 bytes)Reference: Albert VA19, Tice VA258A1.


blank southern manufacture.460, (22.5mm).
Backmark: blank brass back, wide channel, often with stamping flaws probably caused by debris during stamping, crude manufacture by southern maker, (blank southern manufacture.460).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B6128. Confederate Infantry button, block "I" with pronounced border, southern wartime manufacture, brass back with wide blank channel, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS182 not listed, Tice CSI244.


blank southern manufacture.470, (23mm).
Backmark: blank copper back, with channel, crude manufacture by unknownsouthern maker, (blank southern manufacture.470).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5380. Confederate Navy button, "CSN" anchor with two bands on lined background with rope border, Confederate wartime manufacture, plain copper back with channel,(23mm).
Reference: Albert CS66, Tice CSN266A1.


blank southern manufacture.490, (23mm).
Backmark: blank channel with ring of thirteen dots, brass back, copper or wire wire shank was fitted only and not brazed and is usually loose, southern maker not known, (blank southern manufacture.490). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188, [Plate C-3, 4].

B4700.Georgia button, state seal dome over three pillars, southern wartime manufacture, 13 dots rmdc, (23.3mm).
B4700.JPG (24682 bytes) B4700B.jpg (35635 bytes)Reference: Albert GA10, TiceGA227A.


blank southern manufacture.500, (22mm to 23mm approximate, these buttons are never truly round).
Backmark: blank iron back, weak ring around the shank, no other markings, backs are always crudely crimped (blank southern manufacture.500). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188,Plate [C-3, 7], and Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188, [C-3, 8], I am of the opinion that items 7 and 8 are the same manufacturer, the difference in Tice's photograph is difference in weakness of the stamping, but they otherwise appear to be the same back.

B5384. Confederate artillery button, block "A" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, plain iron back with copper shank, (22mm).
Reference: Albert CS117A, Tice CSA243A1.

B6127. Confederate infantry button, block "I" surrounded by stars with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, iron back with copper shank, (23.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS186B, Tice CSI255A1.

B5218. Confederate infantry button, wide block "I" surrounded by stars with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, iron back with copper shank, (23.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS186A, Tice CSI255A1.


blank southern manufacture.510, (22mm or 23mm approximate, these buttons are never round).
Backmark: blank iron back, ring of dots loosely spaced, two inner solid rings, no marks, back is crudely crimped, (blank southern manufacture.510). Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5395. Confederate infantry button, block "I" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, iron back with ring of dots, and copper shank, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS182B (iron back), Tice CSI243B2.


blank southern manufacture.520, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank iron back, depressed wide channel, crude manufacture by southern maker, (blank southern manufacture.520).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5918. Confederate Infantry button, block "I" with weak border, Confederate wartime manufacture, iron back with wide blank channel, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS181 not listed, Tice CSI240B1.


blank southern manufacture.530, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank iron back, deep rounded channel results in a back that seemsmore convex than most and sometimes referred to as "puffback", iron shank,unknown southern manufacture, (blank southern manufacture.530).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B5497. Confederate infantry button, block "I" with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, low convex, iron back with channel and copper shank, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS182A or CS183, Tice CSI244.


blank southern manufacture.540, (22mm to 23mm).
Backmark: blank iron back, rounded channel, crude manufacture by unknownsouthern maker, (blank southern manufacture.540).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B4887. Confederate infantry button, narrow block "I" on plain background with border, Confederate wartime manufacture, iron back with narrow channel and iron shank, (22.5mm).
Reference: Albert CS182A, Tice CSI243A.


blank southern manufacture.550, (25mm).
Backmark: blank iron back, slight ring near the rim leaves a very wide channel, crude manufacture by unknownsouthern maker, (blank southern manufacture.550).
Reference: Tice, Dating Buttons, page 188.

B1506. Confederate cavalry button, Confederate flag waving with stars, "CSA" above, and crossed sabers below, Confederate wartime manufacture, plain iron back with copper shank, (22mm).
Reference: Albert CS144, Tice CSC250A1.