Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War

Civil War Buttons

by Harry Ridgeway


Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War
Button backmarks.
Research center, button backmarks, click: http://relicman.com/buttons/Button9900-Backmark-Index.html.

Research center, button backmarks, click: http://relicman.com/buttons/Button9900-Backmark-Index.html.


This is the "Ridgeway Civil War Library", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader. Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author. None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to relicman.com sales listings for items offered for sale. This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items. I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described. Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission. This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.

Most information on this page is from:
Uniform Buttons of the United States 1776 - 1865, by Warren K.Tice.
Dating buttons; A Chronology of Button Types, Makers, Retailers & Their Backmarks, by Warren K. Tice.
Directory of American Military Goods Dealers & Makers, by Bruce S. Bazelon and William F. Guinn.
Record of American Uniform and Historical Buttons, Bicentennial Edition, by Alphaeus H. Albert.
Pictures are generally by the author, unless otherwise indicated
.


I am compiling this list of backmarks, as a service for the button collector. As I get good pictures of the backs of buttons (generally from buttons as I have them to list on my website) I am cataloging them more or less according to "Dating Buttons, A Chronology of Button Types, Makers, Retailers & Their Backmarks" by Warren K. Tice. This is meant to be a supplement to that work by photographing the backmarks not pictured in that book, and development of a numbering system. You will still need to refer to that work as there is much information in it that I do not intend to cover in this reference.

It is my intention to photograph and publish (eventually) all of the backs that I get but I will do it piecemeal as I get them so here is a start. My numbering system will reference Tice book, my scheme is alphabetical according to what is seen on the backmarks. So for example, I will list Scovill backs under "S", Extra Quality under "E", even though both may have been listed by Tice under Scovill.

I make no warranties or guarantees whatsoever of any of the data contained in this reference of backmarks, this is a compilation of information only and is provided as a reference tool available for button research. However, if you find that I have made mistakes, please tell me about them and I will make corrections, that is a major advantage of this internet media versus the print media, I can add things and make corrections as we go, I don't have to wait till I have it all to publish any of it.


Acerman & Mixer were outfitters operating in New York. Buttons were produced probably by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-AcermanMixer

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-AcermanMixer.html.

American Button Co operated Newark New Jersey early 20th century. All buttons bearing their name were produced well after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-AmericanButton

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-AmericanButton.html.

Armitage was early producer, 1820's, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Button9901-Backmark-Armitage

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Armitage.html.

Charles Bellenot was an engraver and die maker operating out of New Orleans. The backmarks are usually blank or weakly struck.
Button9901-Backmark-BellenotC

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-BellenotC.html.

Benedict & Burnham operated 1830's to 1849. Buttons of this period are noted for very high quality and they produced a lot of Civilian buttons. After 1849, buttons were produced by Waterbury Button Co.
Button9901-Backmark-Benedict

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Benedict.html.

Best Mercury, generic or trademark backmark, manufacture not detemined.
Button9901-Backmark-BestMercury

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-BestMercury.html.

Best Plated, generic or trademark backmark, manufacture not detemined.
Button9901-Backmark-BestPlated

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-BestPlated.html.

Best Quality, generic or trademark backmark, manufacture not detemined.
Button9901-Backmark-BestQuality

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-BestQuality.html.

George Boggett is listed as operating at 50 St. Martins Lane in London, 1826 to 1843.
Button9901-Backmark-Boggett

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Boggett.html.

John F Boylan operated late 1860's to early 1900's.
Button9901-Backmark-BoylanJohn

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-BoylanJohn.html.

Samuel Buckley & Co, Birmingham England.
Button9901-Backmark-BuckleyS

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-BuckleyS.html.

S. Isaacs Campbell was a military goods supplier operating in London England before the war. They supplied substantial supplies to the Confederacy, smuggled through the blockade. The buttons are believed to have been made by Smith Kemp Wright.
Button9901-Backmark-CampbellSIsaacs

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-CampbellSIsaacs.html.

Canfield brothers, located in Baltimore Maryland were outfitters operating before the Civil War, supplying uniforms both North and South.
Button9901-Backmark-Canfield.

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Canfield.html.

John Chatwin & Sons was a small English producer, manufacturing a limited offering of Confederate buttons.
Button9901-Backmark-Chatwin.

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Chatwin.html.

Herman Cohn, Brooklyn New York.operated after the Civil War around 1900.
Button9901-Backmark-CohnHerman

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-CohnHerman.html.

Henry et Antione Cordier operated in Paris.
Button9901-Backmark-CordierFreres

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-CordierFreres.html.

Courtney & Tennent was a military goods dealer operating in Charleston SC, buttons were produced in England.
Button9901-Backmark-CourtneyTennent

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-CourtneyTennent.html.

William Crumpton is believed to have immigarated in the 1780's, and eventually set up a button making operation in Philadelphia during the early 1800's.
Button9901-Backmark-Crumpton.

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Crumpton.html.

Cullen Brown, located in Detroit Michigan were outfitters operating from 1846 to the late 1860's.
Button9901-Backmark-CullenBrown.
B4721.jpg (34582 bytes) B4721B.jpg (36883 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-CullenBrown.html.

Thomas N. Dale was a retailer operating in New York from 1840 to well past the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-DaleThomasN

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-DaleThomasN.html.

John Delarue, New Orleans is listed in Bazelon as a jeweler 1811 to 1824. Buttons are high quality.
Button9901-Backmark-DelarueJohn
B5033.jpg (30232 bytes) B5033B.jpg (34402 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-DelarueJohn.html.

Devlin & Co operated New York from 1843 to 20th century. All buttons bearing their name were produced after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-Devlin

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Devlin.html.

Double Gilt, generic or trademark backmark denoting quality, producer is not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-DoubleGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-DoubleGilt.html.

W H Dowler operated out of Birmingham England and produced buttons, smuggled through the blockade..
Button9901-Backmark-DowlerW

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-DowlerW.html.

E.L.E. is probably an English outfitter, buttons were likely made by D Evans.
Button9901-Backmark-ELE

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ELE.html.

D Evans took over the bankrupt R & W Robinson company ca 1848. They continued to use many of the Robinson dies and backs well into the 1850's and produced backmarks with their own name, 1850's and 1860's.
Button9901-Backmark-EvansD

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-EvansD.html.

Evans and Hassall, Philadelphia.
Button9901-Backmark-EvansHassall

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-EvansHassall.html.

Extra Fine Gilt, generic or trademark backmark, denoting quality.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraFineGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraFineGilt.html.

Extra Gilt, generic or trademark backmark, denoting quality.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraGilt.html.

Extra Gold Quality, generic or trademark backmark, English Manufacture, producer is not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraGoldQuality

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraGoldQuality.html.

Extra Plate, generic or trademark backmark, ca 1830s, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraPlate

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraPlate.html.

Extra Quality, generic or trademark backmark denoting quality, manufacture by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraQualityScovill

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraQualityScovill.html.

Extra Quality, generic or trademark backmark, Steele & Johnson manufacture.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraQualitySteeleJohnson

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraQualitySteeleJohnson.html.

Extra Quality, generic or trademark backmark, likely manufactured by Waterbury Button Co.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraQualityWaterburyButton

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraQualityWaterburyButton.html.

Extra Rich Colour, generic or trademark backmark, likely English manufacture, ca 1830's.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichColour

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichColour.html.

Extra Rich, generic or trademark backmark, Scovill manufacture.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichScovill

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichScovill.html.

Extra Rich, generic or trademark backmark, manufacture not determined, may be Steele & Johnson.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichSteeleJohnson

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichSteeleJohnson.html.

Extra Rich Treble Gilt, generic or trademark backmark, English manufacture not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichTrebleGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraRichTrebleGilt.html.

Extra Strong Plated, generic or trademark backmark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraStrongPlated

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraStrongPlated.html.

Extra Superb, generic or trademark backmark, manufactured by an English producer.
Button9901-Backmark-ExtraSuperb

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ExtraSuperb.html.

Fine Gilt, generic or trademark backmark, likely manufacture by Steele & Johnson.
Button9901-Backmark-FineGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-FineGilt.html.

Fine Gold Plate, generic or trademark backnark, likely manufacture by Steele & Johnson.
Button9901-Backmark-FineGoldPlate

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-FineGoldPlate.html.

Fine Quality, generic or trademark backmark, tentatively D Evans.
Button9901-Backmark-FineQuality

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-FineQuality.html.

Firmin & Sons operated in London England from the 17th century and continue to operate today.
Button9901-Backmark-Firmin

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Firmin.html.

James P Fitch began military goods business in 1862, and formed a partnership with Howard Waldo in 1863.
Button9901-Backmark-FitchWaldo

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-FitchWaldo.html.

George Floyd, Philadelphia, operating in the 1840's.
Button9901-Backmark-FloydGeorge
B4426.jpg (33130 bytes) B4426B.jpg (31282 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-FloydGeorge.html.

Gilt, generic or trademark backmark denoting quality, producer is not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-Gilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Gilt.html.

Jacob Gminder operated during the Civil War, yet most of his buttons are definite post war.
Button9901-Backmark-GminderJacob
B4452.jpg (35919 bytes) B4452B.jpg (33968 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-GminderJacob.html.

Goddard & Brothers, Newark New Jersey. Goddard was an outfitter, most buttons were made by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-Goddard

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Goddard.html.

Goldsboro Rifles was a North Carolina unit, Scovill originall manufactured a custom backmark for them, but later used the back on other buttons..
Button9901-Backmark-GoldsboroRifles
B4985.jpg (28665 bytes) B4985B.jpg (35059 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-GoldsboroRifles.html.

Goodwins operated after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-Goodwins

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Gourdin et Cie was a French maker of high quality buttons. Most buttons supplied to the American Civil War were Naval.
Button9901-Backmark-GourdinCie

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-GourdinCie.html.

Guiterman & Bro was a custom retailer supplying the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor Michigan.
Button9901-Backmark-Guiterman
B5030.jpg (36805 bytes) B5030B.jpg (31309 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Guiterman.html.

Ethelbert Halfmann was a clothier operating from Montgomery Alabama before the war, buttons were supplied by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-HalfmannE
B4933.jpg (28854 bytes)B4933B.jpg (31566 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HalfmannE.html.

Halfmann & Taylor, Montgomery Alabama, buttons were produced in England and smuggled through the blockade.
Button9901-Backmark-HalfmannTaylor.html

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HalfmannTaylor.html.

Hammond Turner & Bates, was a military goods supplier operating out of Manchester England, producing supplies for the Confederacy.
Button9901-Backmark-HammondTurnerBates

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HammondTurnerBates.html.

Hammond, Turner & Dickinson, Birmingham England, operated 1790 to 1820's.
Button9901-Backmark-HammondTurnerDickinson

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HammondTurnerDickinson.html.

Henry C Harper operated Philadeplphia late 19th century. All buttons bearing their name were produced after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-HarperHC

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HarperHC.html.

Frederick K Hassam operated Boston Massachusetts 1845 to the end of the Civil War..
Button9901-Backmark-HassamFK

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HassamFK.html.

Hebbert Co. London, England.
Button9901-Backmark-Hebbert.html

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Hebbert.html.

Horstmann companies.
Button9901-Backmark-Horstmann

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Horstmann.html.

Hyde & Goodrich were partners operating in New Orleans supplying military goods to a number of states in the deep south.
Button9901-Backmark-HydeGoodrich

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-HydeGoodrich.html.

Imperial Orange Gilt, generic or trademark, manufacturer not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ImperialOrangeGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ImperialOrangeGilt.html.

Imperial Rich Gilt, generic or trademark, manufacturer not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ImperialRichGilt

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ImperialRichGilt.html.

Imperial Standard, generic or trademark, manufacturer not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-ImperialStandard

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ImperialStandard.html.

Independent Cadets, Vermont militia unit, Artillery.
Button9901-Backmark-IndependentCadets

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-IndependentCadets.html.

Charles Jennens was a button maker operating in London England in the 19th century. Most buttons produced by this maker were non military.
Button9901-Backmark-Jennens

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Jennens.html.

W H Jones & Co operated in Waterbury Connecticut for a short time, 1835 to 1840.
Button9901-Backmark-JonesWH

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-JonesWH.html.

Ives and Kendrick operated Waterville Connecticut 1836 to 1847.
Button9901-Backmark-Kendrick

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Kendrick.html.

Kent Paine was an outfitter supply uniforms to Virginia and North Carolina. Their buttons were made by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-KentPaine
B4437.jpg (30918 bytes) B4437B.jpg (29498 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-KentPaine.html.

Lambert & Mast was a small producer operating in Philadephia during the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-LambertMast

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-LambertMast.html.

Leavenworth operated various partnerships, 1811 to 1849.
Button9901-Backmark-Leavenworth

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Leavenworth.html.

E M Lewis started out as a stencil maker in Richmond Va, then sold buttons during the war.
Button9901-Backmark-LewisEM.html

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-LewisEM.html.

Edward Lewis was a London England producer, apparently formed a partnership with Francis Tomes operating in New York starting 1819. Tomes then operated under various names and making a variety of military goods through the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-LewisTomes

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-LewisTomes.html.

M. C. Lilly & Co. / Columbus, Ohio , manufactured 1870's or later.
Button9901-Backmark-LillyMC

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-LillyMC.html.

London Quality, buttons were produced by John Chatwin for the Confederacy, a small English manufacturer.
Button9901-Backmark-LondonQuality

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-LondonQuality.html.

Loud, London, English manufacturer.
Button9901-Backmark-Loud

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Loud.html.

Addiston Macullar, George Williams, & Charles Parker were a retailer operating in Boston from 1851 to past the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-MacularWilliamsParker

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Joseph Mann was English producer operating Birmingham 1800 to 1843.
Button9901-Backmark-MannJ

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-MannJ.html.

Nathan S Meyer operated New York from 1870's to 20th century. All buttons bearing their name were produced after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-MeyerNS.html

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T.E.Miller produced buttons during the Civil War operating out of Houston Texas, manufacture is cast and crude.
Button9901-Backmark-MillerT

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William G Mintzer, Philadelphia, sold buttons to both north and south before the war and continued after the war until approximately 1869. Some of the buttons bear the date "1861".
Button9901-Backmark-MintzerWG

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-MintzerWG.html.

Mitchel and Tyler operated in Richmond Va as an outfitter from 1845. Most of their buttons were made by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-MitchelTyler

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-MitchelTyler.html.

Solomon A Myers operated in Richmond during the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-MyersSA

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-MyersSA.html.

Novelty Rubber Company operated New York and New Jersey 1855 to 1865, and produced hard rubber buttons using Goodyear's patent.
Button9901-Backmark-NoveltyGoodyear

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-NoveltyGoodyear.html.

Oehms Acme Hall, Baltimore, manufactured 1880's or later.
Button9901-Backmark-OehmsAcmeHall

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-OehmsAcmeHall.html.

Pacific Button Co, San Francisco operated from the 1880's to 20th century. All buttons bearing their name were produced after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-PacificButton

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-PacificButton.html.

Palanzuelos was a Cuban firm, Scovill supplied buttons to this firm in the 1850's. Apparently there were a number of backs left over from the production run, which Scovill later used on northern state buttons, where inspection was lax.
Button9901-Backmark-Palanzuelos.html
B5005.jpg (38936 bytes)B5005B.jpg (38475 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Palanzuelos.html.

George Armitage, Philadelphia Pennsylvania, made buttons 1799 to 1826. The buttons bearing "Philada" are an old style of presentation of "Philadelphia".
Button9901-Backmark-Philada

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"Plated ...." are generic or trademark backmarks.
Button9901-Backmark-Plated

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Plated.html.

Jacob Reed operated Philadelphia from 1820's to 20th century. All buttons bearing their name were produced after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-ReedJacob

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-ReedJacob.html.

Rich Gold Color, was a generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined..
Button9901-Backmark-RichGoldColor

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-RichGoldColor.html.

Rich Quality London, was a generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-RichLondonQuality

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-RichLondonQuality.html.

Rich Treble Gilt, was a generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-RichTrebleGilt
B4419.jpg (30832 bytes) B4419B.jpg (25319 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-RichTrebleGilt.html.

Ridabock & Co New York operated after the Civil War from 1883 to 1975..
Button9901-Backmark-Ridabock

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Ridabock.html.

"Rivet'd & Solder'd" backmarks are believed to have been the marks of Prussian manufacturer Schnitzler & Kirschbaum, operating in Birmingham England. They supplied buttons to the south through the blockade.
Button9901-Backmark-RivetedSolderd

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Robinson companies operated in various forms, 1813 to 1848, when it was taken over by D Evans.
Button9901-Backmark-Robinson

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Robinson.html.

Casimir Rouyer was an watch maker operating out of New Orleans. The backmarks are usually blank or weakly struck.
Button9901-Backmark-RouyerC
B5362A.JPG (34105 bytes) B5362B.JPG (35023 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-RouyerC.html.

Charles Rowley was a small English producer, manufacturing a limited offering of Confederate buttons.
Button9901-Backmark-Rowley

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Rowley.html.

Schur & Bland, (Bernard D Schur) operated inCharleston South Carolina during the war.
Button9901-Backmark-SchurBland

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SchurBland.html.

Schuyler, Hartley, and Graham were partners engaged in the military goods service from 1854 to the 1880s. Their 1864 catalog illustrated many of their goods available. They did not actually produce the buttons, it is believed that Scovill produced many of them, but not all.
Button9901-Backmark-Schuyler

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Scovill was by far the most dominant of the Civil War era button manufacturers.
Button9901-Backmark-Scovill

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Silvered Surface Warranted, generic or trademark backmark, maker is not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-SilveredSurfaceWarranted

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George W Simmons & Co operated in Boston from 1830's to 1896, all buttons bearing his name were manufactured after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-SimmonsGW

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Smith Kemp Wright, Birmingham England.
Button9901-Backmark-SmithKempWright

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SmithKempWright.html.

William H. Smith operated generally from the 1830s to around 1858. W H Smith was an outfitter, buttons were generally made by Scovill and distributed before the war to both northern and southern purchasers including the Federal government.
Button9901-Backmark-SmithWH

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SmithWH.html.

Nathan Snellenberg operated after the Civil War from 1868 to 1920's.
Button9901-Backmark-SnellenbergN

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SnellenbergN.html.

Adam W Spies immigrated from Birmingham England in the late 1820's and sold buttons in New York until about 1835. The buttons were probably made in England.
Button9901-Backmark-SpiesAW

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SpiesAW.html.

Josh Starkey and Samuel Starkey provided buttons to the Federal Navy, and operated in England.
Button9901-Backmark-Starkey

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State Arsenal Pennsylvania was a custom backmark used by the Pennsylvania state arsenal after the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-StateArsenal

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-StateArsenal.html.

Steele & Johnson Manufacturing Co operated in the 1850s followed by Steele & Johnson Button Co from thelate 1850s to 1875. This maker was very active, but most buttons producedby them bore the names of the outfitters or nondescript quality denoted backmarks.
Button9901-Backmark-SteeleJohnson

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SteeleJohnson.html.

Superb Imperial Standard, a generic or trademark backmark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperbImperialStandard

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SuperbImperialStandard.html.

Superfine Gold Plated, a trademark backmark, manufactured by Waterbury Button Co, likely ca 1870's.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperfineGoldPlated

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SuperfineGoldPlated.html.

Superfin Paris, a generic or trademark backmark, this is believed to have been manufactured by Scovill.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperfinParis
B4927.jpg (27789 bytes)B4927B.jpg (28634 bytes)
Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SuperfinParis.html.

Superior Plated is generic or trademark backmark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperiorPlated

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SuperiorPlated.html.

Superior Quality is a generic or trade mark backmark, this one is English manufacture.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperiorQualityEnglish

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-SuperiorQualityEnglish.html.

Superior Quality is a generic or trade mark backmark, this one is believed to have been by Steele & Johnson.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperiorQualitySteeleJohnson

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Superior Srong Plated is generic or trademark backmark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-SuperiorStrongPlated

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P Tait & Company, Limerick Ireland is best known for its patented floating shank backs.
Button9901-Backmark-TaitP

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-TaitP.html.

Treble Gilt, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGilt

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Treble Gilt Orange, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGiltOrange.html

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGiltOrange.html.

Treble Gilt Orange Colour, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGiltOrangeColour

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Treble Gilt Rich Orange, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGiltRichOrange.html

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGiltRichOrange.html.

Treble Gilt Standard Colour, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleGiltStandardColour

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Treble Plated, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TreblePlated

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Treble Plated London, generic or trademark backmarks denoting quality, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-TreblePlatedLondon

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Treble Rich Standard, generic or trademark denoting quality, English manufacture for the Confederacy.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleRichStandard

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-TrebleRichStandard.html.

Treble Standard Extra Rich, generic or trademark denoting quality, English manufacture for the Confederacy.
Button9901-Backmark-TrebleStandardExtraRich

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-TrebleStandardExtraRich.html.

Trelon, Weldon et Weil, operated in Paris France after 1844.
Button9901-Backmark-TrelonWeldonWeil

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-TrelonWeldonWeil.html.

"United States" backmarks were custom backmarks used on 1830s buttons, manufactured for the Federal government.
Button9901-Backmark-UnitedStates

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-UnitedStates.html.

Van Wart Son & Co was an English manufacturer operating from the 1820's.
Button9901-Backmark-VanWart

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-VanWart.html.

Wadhams Webster & Co, Wolcottville, Connecticut, (now Torrington) operated 1838 to 1846.
Button9901-Backmark-WadhamsWebster

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WadhamsWebster.html.

William Wallis, Birmingham England, operated 1790 to 1830's.
Button9901-Backmark-WallisWilliam

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WallisWilliam.html.

Walton Brothers operated in New York from 1858 to beyond the Civil War.
Button9901-Backmark-Walton

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-Walton.html.

Warranted Best Quality, generic or trademark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedBestQuality

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedBestQuality.html.

Warranted Rich Orange, generic or trademark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedRichOrange

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedRichOrange.html.

Warranted Rich Treble, generic or trademark, maker likely R & W Robinson.
Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedRichTreble

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedRichTreble.html.

Warranted Treble Plated, generic or trademark, maker not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedTreblePlated

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WarrantedTreblePlated.html.

Waterbury Button Co began producing buttons under its own name in 1849 and is the only Civil War button producer operating today. WBC did not produce any buttons for any of the southern states before the war or for the Confederacy, but they did produce large quantities for the north.
Button9901-Backmark-WaterburyButtonCo

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WaterburyButtonCo.html.

Charles & Jeremiah Weldon, London.
Button9901-Backmark-WeldonCharlesJeremiah

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WeldonCharlesJeremiah.html.

Casper Wendlinger operated during the Civil War, but most of his buttons are definite post war. However there are some backmarks that may be period.
Button9901-Backmark-WendlingerC

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WendlingerC.html.

William Wildt was listed as a jeweler in Richmond Va from 1852 until well after the Civil War. One of his sons, Julia Wildt, moved to Columbia SC and partnered with a German named "Klein". Not enough is known about these producers, the shop in Columbia was burned during the war. It is not entirely clear whether buttons were produced at both locations or if the button making was subcontracted with another producer.
Button9901-Backmark-WildtW

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WildtW.html.

Wise Bielby Hyde & Co is an English producer operating in Birmingham 1818 to 1825.
Button9901-Backmark-WiseBielbyHyde

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-WiseBielbyHyde.html.

Young, Smith & Company operated in New York from approximately 1830 to around 1858. Backmarks from the partnership generally bear both names but in either order. W H Smith also sold buttons bearing his name solely.
Button9901-Backmark-YoungSmith

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-YoungSmith.html.

Blank backs, (no text), English manufacture.
Button9901-Backmark-zblankEnglishManufacture

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-zblankEnglishManufacture.html.

Blank backs, (no text), northern US manufacture.
Button9901-Backmark-zblankNorthernManufacture

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-zblankNorthernManufacture.html.

Blank backs, (no text), souythern manufacture. Many of the "local" buttons produced in the many shops of the south employed backs that were unmarked. There are many distinct variations of the unmarked backs and the details of construction will offer clues as to their origins.
Button9901-Backmark-zblankSouthernManufacture

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-zblankSouthernManufacture.html.

Blank backs, (graphic designs, no text), manufacture not determined.
Button9901-Backmark-zzOther

Details click: http://relicman.com/Button9901-Backmark-zzOther.html.


Ridgeway Civil War Research Center,
A virtual examination of artifacts of the American Civil War
Buttons
Research center, buttons, click: http://relicman.com/buttons/Button0000-Index.html.

Research center, buttons, click: http://relicman.com/buttons/Button0000-Index.html.

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