Civil War Relicman,
Harry Ridgeway.

Winchester, Virginia USA (changed hands 70 times in the Civil War!).

Ridgeway Reference Archive, Civil War buttons.
Catalog of button backmarks.
Catalog of button backmarks.

This is the "Ridgeway Reference Archive", a research tool for educational purposes only, and is provided at no cost to the reader.   Some of the relics listed are retained in the author's collection, most reside in other collections and are not owned by the author.  None of the items listed in this section are for sale, please refer to sales listings for items offered for sale.  This is a work in progress, I list items as I get to them, there are many patterns that are not listed yet, this list will be regularly updated as I get pictures and descriptions for more items.  I will also correct mistakes, so if you see any please tell me. All  items listed are believed to be authentic to the Civil War or as otherwise described.   Any excavated relics have been recovered from private property with owners permission.    This information is available for research purposes, pictures may be used by permission only.

Most information on this page is from Tice or Albert books, the pictures are generally from buttons analyzed by the author.

I am compiling this list of backmarks, as a service for the button collector.  As I get good pictures of the backs of buttons (generally from buttons as I have them to list on my website) I am cataloging them more or less according to "Dating Buttons, A Chronology of Button Types, Makers, Retailers & Their Backmarks" by Warren K. Tice.  This is meant to be a supplement to that work by photographing the backmarks not pictured in that book, and development of a numbering system. You will still need to refer to that work as there is much information in it that I do not intend to cover in this reference.

It is my intention to photograph and publish (eventually) all of the backs that I get but I will do it piecemeal as I get them so here is a start.  My numbering system will reference Tice book, my scheme is alphabetical according to what is seen on the backmarks.  So for example, I will list Scovill backs under "S", Extra Quality under "E", even though both may have been listed by Tice under Scovill.  

I make no warranties or guarantees whatsoever of any of the data contained in this reference of backmarks, this is a compilation of information only and is provided as a reference tool available for button research.  However, if you find that I have made mistakes, please tell me about them and I will make corrections, that is a major advantage of this internet media versus the print media, I can add things and make corrections as we go, I don't have to wait till I have it all to publish any of it.

blank backs, English manufacture.

blank backs, southern manufacture, Confederate "local" manufacture during the war.
B4816B.jpg (36282 bytes)

blank backs, northern manufacture.
B4678B.jpg (30496 bytes)

George Armitage, Philadelphia.

Charles Bellenot, New Orleans.

Benedict & Burnham.
B4432B.jpg (35176 bytes)


George Boggett, London.

John F Boylan, New York.

Samuel Buckley, Birmingham England.

Isaacs Campbell, S., London England.

Canfield Brothers, Baltimore Maryland.
B4420B.jpg (45592 bytes)B5009B.jpg (38241 bytes)

Chatwin & Sons, Birmingham England.

Herman Cohn, New York.

Cordier Freres, Paris.

Courtney & Tennent, Charleston SC.

William Crumpton, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Cullen Brown, Detroit, Michigan.
B4721B.jpg (36883 bytes)

Thomas N. Dale, New York.

John Delarue, New Orleans.
B5033B.jpg (34402 bytes)

Devlin & Co., New York.

W.H. Dowler, Birmingham England.

E. L. E. London.

D. Evans, Attleboro Massachusetts.



Firmin & Sons, London England.
B5089B.JPG (37176 bytes)

George Floyd, Philadelphia PA.
B4426B.jpg (31282 bytes)


Jacob Gminder, Baltimore Maryland.
B4452B.jpg (33968 bytes)

Goddard & Brothers.

Goldsboro Rifles.
B4985B.jpg (35059 bytes)

Goodwin. (all manufactured after the Civil War)

Gourdin et Cie, Paris France.

Guiterman & Bro. Ann Arbor Michigan.
B5030B.jpg (31309 bytes)

Halfmann & Taylor, Montgomery Alabama.

Hammond, companies, Manchester England.

Henry C Harper, Philadelphia.

Frederick K Hassam, Boston Massachusetts.

Horstmann companies, New York and Philadelphia.

Hyde & Goodrich, New Orleans, Louisiana.
B4944B.jpg (30915 bytes)



Charles Jennens, London England.

W H Jones, Waterbury Connecticut.

Kendrick & Co .

Kent Paine, Richmond, Virginia.
B4437B.jpg (29498 bytes)

Lambert & Mast, Philadelphia, Pa.

Leavenworth companies, Connecticut.

E.M. Lewis, Richmond, Virginia.

Lewis & Tomes, New York and London.

M C Lilly Columbus Ohio. (all manufactured after the Civil War)


Loud, London.

Macullar Williams & Parker, Boston Mass.
B5043B.JPG (31720 bytes)

J Mann, Birmingham England.

Nathan S Meyer, New York.

T E Miller, Houston Texas.

W. G. Mintzer, Philadelphia, PA.

Mitchell & Tyler, Richmond, Va.
B5068B.JPG (37582 bytes) B5082B.JPG (36042 bytes)

S. A. Myers, Richmond Va.

Novelty Rubber Co, Goodyear's patent.

Pacific Button Co, San Francisco California.

B5005B.jpg (38475 bytes)



Jacob Reed, Philadelphia.

B4419B.jpg (25319 bytes) B4659B.jpg (41544 bytes)

Ridabock & Co New York.

Rivet'd & Solder'd...
B4695B.jpg (26752 bytes)

R&W Robinson, Attleboro Mass.
B5087B.JPG (46901 bytes)

Rowley & Co., England.

Casimir Rouyer, New Orleans, LA.
B5362B.JPG (35023 bytes)

Schur & Bland Charleston SC.

Schuyler Hartley & Graham, New York.
B5014B.jpg (33945 bytes) B5021B.jpg (41158 bytes)

Scovill companies.
B4969B.jpg (32739 bytes) B4960B.jpg (42598 bytes)


George W Simmons, Boston.

Smith Kemp Wright, England.

W. H. Smith, New York.
B4956B.jpg (40306 bytes)

Spies, Adam W, New York.

Starkey companies, London England.

State Arsenal, Penna.

Steele & Johnson, Waterbury, Connecticut.

Superior ......
B5035B.JPG (30143 bytes) B4943B.jpg (27401 bytes)

P. Tait, Limerick, Ireland.


Trelon, Weldon et Weil, Paris France.

Wadams Webster & Co.

William Wallis, Birmingham England.

Walton Brothers, New York.

United States.

Van Wart Son.


Waterbury Button Co.
B5050B.JPG (42548 bytes) B5050B.JPG (42548 bytes)

Wendlenger, Richmond Va.

W. Wildt, Richmond Va & Columbia SC.
B5085B.JPG (37281 bytes) B4459B.jpg (33155 bytes)

Wise Bielby Hyde & Co, Birmingham England.

Young Smith, New York.
B4932B.jpg (30639 bytes)

Miscellaneous graphic designs.

Ridgeway Reference Archive, Civil War buttons
much more information about buttons and their backmarks, click here for more information

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